Western Migration 1785-1820

During the years following the American Revolutionary War, many families began settling back to a normal life and reflecting upon the days of conflict. Settlement was discouraged beyond the Appalachian Mountains prior to the war, but now that independence was achieved, the original nation boundaries were beginning to expand in an overwhelming way. Genealogists and historians alike struggle with the research of these early migration routes. Documents pertaining to these roads are rare including maps displaying the exact location of the trails. The first western migration occurred between the years of 1785 and 1820, this in accordance to population records of the National Archives. The fascinating facts are attributed to the pioneers who traveled the routes and why they ventured to these new territories.

They Traveled by Land and By Water to Reach Their New Western Home

The reasons why families traveled west of the Appalachian Mountains varies from one cabin to another. A number of families decided to move west prior to the Revolutionary War to seek peace or to restrain from fighting in the war. Nevertheless, early trails allowed these families to enter present day Tennessee, Kentucky and Ohio. After the war, the settlers migrated due to the freedom they acquired from the war. They also migrated due to the vast amounts of land that was readily available. Many sought small settlements with no courthouses, no law and less neighbors. Some of the settlers were seeking a new start with no debt or perhaps changing their name and forgetting the events of the past. Understanding these reasons allows us to experience the migration in a different format. Money was extremely scarce after the war and many families were unable to pay the taxes due. Commodities such as coffee, tea, salt and sugar were expensive and prices for livestock, tobacco and other items were down for several years following the war.

For the researchers of these trails, where do you begin to document the facts? The recordkeeping varies with each territory and each new state as new land grants are distributed through the areas. The trails were the Wilderness Trail or Cumberland Gap Road and the National Road. Other Indian trails were known to be followed especially through the Appalachian Mountains and into Tennessee. Land grants were designed in six different categories, Purchase, Military, Pre-Emption, Surveyor, Commission and Legislative. The individual states began records in accordance to statehood. With this being said, your journey now begins with research first taking place on the history of the area in question in order to pinpoint the documents location on your ancestor.

Research the history of the area in question to determine how & where records were kept

Statehood dates for the original 13 colonies are listed below. Each link will take you directly to the individual state archives website. Pennsylvania-1787, New Jersey-1787, Delaware-1787, Maryland-1788, Virginia-1788, South Carolina-1788, Georgia-1788, New York-1788, Massachusetts-1788, Connecticut-1788, New Hampshire-1788, North Carolina-1789 and Rhode Island-1790. By 1791, these states were well settled and processing their own method of recordkeeping in accordance to the new nation’s guidelines.

Tennessee gained statehood in the year of 1796, but land grants were issued in North Carolina until 1806. During the war, North Carolina controlled the lands of Tennessee and protected them from the British Army. In doing so, North Carolina proclaimed documentation and recordkeeping for the lands until the year of 1806. Statehood date does not prove that records were kept and processed in that particular state. To understand how Ohio lands were distributed, read the Complete Guide of Ohio Lands. Ohio gained statehood during the year of 1803. Kentucky became a state in 1792 and Indiana in 1816. Illinois became a state in 1818 and Alabama in 1819.

Early Kentucky land records can be found in Virginia prior to 1792. Learning the early colony boundaries will enable you to distinguish the correct boundaries during your ancestor’s arrival to the area. For many war veterans who received land from the Northwest Territory, later learned that the land they held was also held under another name. Many judges rendered final decisions on these disputes from early land records. War veterans were entitled to free land in the new territory. This was approved in order to induce settlement in these areas. But, due to boundary lines and other state’s involvement, these lands were given to one person and sold to another. The free lands encouraged thousands of pioneer families to travel the routes and settle on the western frontier. Eventually, the new state boundaries were formed for Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Indiana and Illinois which then proved population percentage. This enabled the territories to become states as they grew.

The best method to tracking your early ancestor’s western migration is to create a timeline that proves your ancestor’s location for each year. Then follow the tax list records for the missing years. Each year, taxes were paid and this list will show you location and amount of tax paid. Check each year for your ancestor and if you still are unable to locate them, check wills/probates for their possible death in these areas. Once you have determined the location, you can track backwards to the available routes during that time from point of origin to final destination. This is a time consuming task but it is well worth the journey.

To fully understand the depth of research involved with each state as it became settled would require a segment on each one. This is a goal of Piedmont Trails as we move forward to this summer. The updates on individual state links can be viewed on the United States Genealogy Research page. Also for more information on the migration trails, we have added a new page, Early Migration Routes. Piedmont Trails will be adding more and more details involving research links, maps and more to this site as time allows. The records involving early settlement can be confusing, but the journey is well worth the time and effort. This allows you to discover your ancestor with a totally different approach. The main objective is to enjoy your research and don’t be bombarded with information that is not relevant to your criteria. Majority of the families who traveled west during the years of 1785 to 1820 were enjoying their freedom to wander and settle in new lands. The hope that dwelled within them carried on mile after mile. Carrying only what they needed along the trail, they moved slowly towards the setting sun. Once they arrived, the home was declared and building started immediately. Some families lived the remainder of their lives there while others moved further west to new frontiers. Our ancestors left an amazing trail to follow. Enjoy your journey to the past !!

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The Great Wagon Road Enters Into South Carolina

The Alternate Route From Charlotte, NC to Augusta, GA

The last article concentrated on the detailed route of the Great Wagon Road through Kershaw and Camden, South Carolina. This last segment of the route will give details through an alternate route in South Carolina and onward to Augusta, Georgia. The settlers traveled through York County, Chester County and Saluda County. Many of these pioneers would settle all throughout this area and just as many would travel onward to Georgia. South Carolina during the early to mid 18th century was not the wilderness frontier that North Carolina clearly was. Land was not as plentiful through the area and this reason alone discouraged many settlers during the late 18th century. The journey was filled with hardships such as dangerous floods, but the settlers that traveled this route were adventurous and brave.

This route leaves Charlotte, North Carolina traveling 14 miles to the Catawba River crossing into York County, South Carolina. Today, Lake Wylie covers the landscape of the original route. Ebenezerville was one of the first settlements in this area. Traveling along State Highway 49 for approx. 17 miles, the route reaches Fergus Crossroads. The crossroads are now located on Liberty Street intersection in York. The first courthouse in the county was built here in 1786 and the name originated from two brothers, John and William Fergus. The crossroads were extremely important to the area as 6 different wagon road routes connected together at this point. The routes are listed as follows: 1-traveling northwest to Kings Mountain and known as the Rutherford road 2-traveling southwest to Pinckney’s Ferry on the Broad River 3-traveling south to Chesterville 4-traveling northeast to Charlottesburg and the Catawba River(The Great Wagon Road) 5-traveling east to Nation Ford 6- traveling southeast to Landsford in Chester County.

Map of The Great Wagon Road from Pennsylvania to Georgia

The route continues for 17 miles to the county line of Chester and Mt. Hopewell Church. Chester county was established in 1785 and the first court was held at the Walker’s home. This location was later known as Lewis Turnout in 1776. The road continues on State Highway 49 for 4 miles to the Broad River located in Lockhart. The actual crossing is now a bridge near the Union County line. Traveling 10 miles from Broad River, the road reaches Union, originally named Unionville. This community was established in 1765 and was named after Union Church. The original church stood near the location of Monarch Mill. It appears that the first settlers arrived in 1749 and greatly grew between the 1760’s and the onset of the American Revolutionary War.

From present day Union, South Carolina, the original route turns left onto State Highway 215 and travels 15 miles to US Highway 72. The route follows the highway for approx. 6 miles until Tuckertown Road is reached. The Tyger River is reached after traveling 7 miles and today is a bridge near the Newberry County line. From the county line to Enoree River crossing is approx. 18 miles. The river looks completely different from the 18th century landscape. The area has been flooded and now has the appearance of a lake where the original crossing ford would have been. From the Enoree River crossing, the route travels for 41 miles crossing the Crims, Wateree and Hollinshead Creeks. The present day route takes you along Broad River Road until you reach Interstate 26.

Tyger River, South Carolina

The road now reaches Saluda River and Lexington County. It is believed that the actual crossing of the river was located at the present day bridge along Interstate 26. The river crossing is 14 miles from Lexington which was originally known as Saxe-Gotha. The community was established in 1735 as one of the 9 original settlements to entice development during the early 18th century. Families were encouraged to travel to these locations, free transportation was provided along with free provisions for one year and free land. Many of the original settlers preferred to own larger tracts of land and to be separated from their neighbors. With this being said, many of these early settlers migrated to other territories and other opportunities. Upon reaching Lexington, the route turns on National Highway 1 and travels 17 miles to Leesville. The settlement of Johnston is reached after traveling 18 miles along the route. The Savannah River is approx. 28 miles from Johnston and the families would navigate the river to reach their destination of Augusta, Georgia.

The Great Wagon Road Consisted Of 800 Miles

Researchers have studied the migration that involved the Great Wagon Road for nearly 200 years. The exact number of families that traveled the road may never be known, but their legacy lives on as present day genealogists and historians strive to document the road. Many are astonished to learn that the historic road is not recognized as a National Historic Trail. Thousands upon thousands of families traveled the route for various reasons. These families suffered hardships that only can be imagined today. They also celebrated an independence and a freedom that encouraged them onward. Their stories of courage deserves to be preserved and honored as well as the original trail itself. It’s up to the present and future generations to complete this goal. Piedmont Trails is proud to announce the involvement of a volunteer group who is currently active on representing this historic trail as a National Treasure. Sharing this data with you all has been a fascinating journey in itself. I encourage you all to travel the route or portions of it, in order to understand the significance and the importance of The Great Wagon Road. During the coming months, Piedmont Trails will share stories of the famous trail complete with details on what your ancestors would have seen and experienced while on the road. Thank You all so much for your support of Piedmont Trails. Wishing you all great success with your research. But, most of all, Enjoy Your Journey To The Past.

18th Century Settlers Along The Banks of Muddy Creek

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Muddy Creek was originally named Gargals Creek and can be shown in this manner on the Fry-Jefferson map of 1755. The upper most branch is shown as Gargales Creek on the 1770 Collet map. The name of Dorithea Creek was given by the Moravians as early as 1756 but by 1780, the creek was referred to as Muddy Creek on all land deeds and other reference data.

The Muddy Creek Settlement is presently located in Forsyth County near Stratford Road. Present day land deeds describe the area as the Muddy Creek plat and early land deeds name the area as Muddy Creek as early as 1751. The flow of the creek is now controlled with culverts so much that you would never know that the creek even exists within the Winston-Salem city limits. It doesn’t begin to flow freely until you reach the Davidson County line near Cooper Road. At this point, it travels southeast and then turns back towards the west as it flows under the bridge of Frye Bridge Road. Here you can see the creek as it may have appeared to the early settlers in the area. The width is large enough to prevent me from attempting to jump across it and you are unable to see the bottom, hence the name, Muddy Creek. Now the creek begins to widen as it travels through the rural farm lands and woods. When it reaches the Hampton Road bridge, it has a width of approx. 11ft. and a much deeper base. If you are researching in the area and would like a more visual view of the landscape, I encourage you to take Muddy Creek Road. This will allow you to view how the land lays near the flood plain of this area. The large creek now travels more west and south until it reaches the Yadkin River which it joins. The origins of the creek begin in present day Stokes County and flows south to the railroad tracks near Highway 158/Stratford Road in Winston-Salem. Many years ago, during the 1970’s, you could see Muddy Creek along a short bridge that spanned Stratford Road, today it is no longer visible as a culvert has replaced the bridge and hidden the creek. Our early settlers used the creeks and streams to navigate through the area. They also used the small waterways to investigate the area and allow proper land selections for themselves and their families. During the early to mid 18th century, a period when roads do not exist, the little creeks and streams were vital to travel, livelihood and a sense of direction, a compass, if you will.

Location Is Key When It Pertains To Genealogy

We begin looking back to the past, the year is 1751 and much of eastern Carolina is already settled. The lands located west to the Yadkin River are seeing the arrival of new settlers traveling from the north down the Great Wagon Road. They arrive to a few settlements already in place, such as the Fourth Creek Settlement, the Dutch Settlement, the Davidson’s Creek Settlement and the Irish Settlement.  These first settlers arrived, unpacked their belongings and began seeking land. Once selected, they applied for land warrants. The date reflecting on these land warrants do not prove the date of arrival. Instead, the dates prove that these settlers arrived much earlier and in some cases were living upon the lands for years prior to applying for a land warrant. A “warrant” or an “entry” in the county surveyor’s book secured the applicant to a survey of the land. It was the responsibility of the applicant to hire 2 chain carriers. Once surveyed, 2 copies of this were made and the applicant had 1 year to submit the survey and pay the fees to the Land Office. Once the fees were paid, the deed was established and recorded. Within the warrant period, the applicant had 3 years to construct a building or dwelling at least 20ft x 16ft and plant 3 acres of land for every 50 acres submitted on the warrant. This gives you an idea of what your ancestor was doing during this time period. The settlers that applied for land warrants did not arrive one day, select a parcel of land the next day and apply for a land warrant the following day. Majority of settlers arrived, settled in and investigated the area. Many moved onward to settle elsewhere within the state, but this transaction involved months and years to complete.

Creating A Timeline Is Essential To Tracing Our Ancestor’s Steps

Bryan Morgan was born in Denmark and traveled to Ireland where he departed for the new colonies circa 1698. He lived in Chester County, PA until he migrated to Virginia in 1729. He organized a settlement which consisted of one hundred thousand acres of land near present day Winchester, VA. By 1748, Morgan and his family left for Carolina and new surroundings. Within 5 years, he claimed several thousands of acres and settlers regarded the area as “Bryan Settlement”. This particular area is located near the Yadkin River and Shallow Ford Crossing. After the arrival of Morgan Bryan, many other settlers followed his trail to the area which extended the Great Wagon Road from it’s previous route. Other families who settled in the area are Carter, Hartford, Davis, Boone, Linville, Hughes, Forbush and many others.  We know the year of arrival for Morgan due to the recordkeeping of Virginia and his partner’s records, Alexander Ross. The first land warrant for Morgan has a date of 10/7/1751 consisting of 640 acres near Yadkin River and Muddy Creek. Morgan became very successful in life through Indian trade which allowed the purchase of land in Virginia near Opequon Creek. The original settlers living within the Bryan Settlement all migrated elsewhere by the time the American Revolutionary War had began with the exception of Edward Hughes.

Townsend Robinson applied for a land warrant on 3/30/1751 consisting of 640 acres near Muddy Creek. This particular family arrived in Carolina from Maryland and settled near the Irish Settlement area. Townsend’s father, Charles Robinson, held the position of Justice of the Peace for Anson County and surveyor. Townsend left the area prior to the American Revolutionary War.

John Dorother applied for a land warrant on 4/1/1752 consisting of 640 acres near Muddy Creek. The chain carriers were Robert Ellrode(namely Elrod) and Robert McAnear. Surveyor was Charles Robinson. John migrated from Ireland and lived in Virginia for a brief period of time before traveling to Carolina.

Zachariah Martin applied for a land warrant on 4/10/1752 consisting of 640 acres near Muddy Creek. Zachariah is listed as “gentleman” and this 18th century term means social status, Zachariah was of high social rank. He was known as Colonel in Mecklenburg County, VA and his father, John Martin, was also listed as a “gentleman” in King William County, VA. Zachariah continued to live in North Carolina and died circa 1775.

Samuel Stewart applied for a land warrant on 4/1/1752 consisting of 640 acres near Muddy Creek. Samuel may be the brother of Henry Stewart who was already living in the area near William Jenkins, Christopher Gist and Barney Curran. John McGuire, constable of Rowan County, hired these men to guide a traveling party to visit the French commander located in the Ohio Valley in 1753.

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James Williams applied for a land warrant on 4/1/1752 consisting of 640 acres near Muddy Creek. It was then located in Anson County and the land deed was recorded on 8/22/1759. James Williams had a son named after him who served as 2nd Lt. during the American Revolutionary War. James Williams Jr. was killed at Kings Mountain, click here to read more.

Jacob Waggoner applied for a land warrant on 4/1/1752 near Muddy Creek. Chain carriers were Frederick Michal and Barnett Michal. Surveyor was Charles Robinson. The deed was recorded on 7/24/1760. Jacob’s uncle, John Waggoner originated from New Castle County, Delaware according to the Court of Common Pleas dated 1703-1717. Jacob’s father died in New Castle County, see Hall of Records located in Dover, Delaware. The Michal family mentioned as chain carriers were from Pennsylvania originated from Louis Michel who was among the first explorers to venture into the Shenandoah Valley in 1706-1707. It is believed that the Michel family and the Waggoner family traveled together to Carolina between the years of 1748-1750 from Virginia.

Robert Elrod applied for a land warrant on 5/2/1753 consisting of 640 acres near Muddy Creek. The deed was recorded on 1/27/1755. Robert is the son of John Elrod who migrated to New Castle County, Delaware. Robert married Sarah Scott and later moved to Kentucky where he died.

Jacob Kurr applied for a land warrant on 11/30/1753 consisting of 640 acres near Muddy Creek. Chain carriers were Alexander Clingman and Simon Haws. Surveyor was James Carter and deed was recorded on 10/3/1761. According to Rowan County Court Minutes I, pg. 104, Jacob Kurr instructed his friend, Daniel Little of Salisbury to sell his acquired land in 1763. Jacob migrated from Whippen, Philadelphia County, PA.

John Nation applied for a land warrant on 12/1/1753 consisting of 640 acres near Muddy Creek and Polecat Creek. The deed was recorded on 5/10/1757. John Nation traveled with Morgan Bryan from Virginia to Carolina. He was able to sell his land in Virginia and continued to live in North Carolina. He died approx. 1773 in Rowan County.

Elisha Robins applied for a land warrant on 12/1/1753 consisting of 640 acres near Deep River area and Muddy Creek in Rowan County. Chain carriers were Marmaduke Vickory and William Robins. The warrant was issued for Elisha Robins but the land survey was completed for Richard Robins, Elisha’s son. Deed was recorded on 1/9/1761. Elisha died circa 1760.

Charles Sparks applied for a land warrant on 5/2/1753 consisting of 640 acres near Yadkin River and Muddy Creek. Chain carriers were Edward Pool and Edward Sweting. Surveyor was James Carter and deed was recorded on 12/30/1760. Charles was born in Queen Annes County, Maryland.  Three brothers migrated to Carolina, namely, Jonas, Matthew and Solomon. Charles was a relative of these brothers.

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Edward Sweting applied for a land warrant on 5/28/1753 consisting of 640 acres near Wagon Ford and Muddy Creek. Chain carriers were William Pool and Edward Pool, surveyor was James Carter. The deed was recorded on 12/29/1760. The Sweeting family migrated from Baltimore, Maryland to Virginia during the early 18th century. Members of this family traveled to Carolina by 1748.

William Robinson applied for a land warrant on 5/1/1753 consisting of 640 acres near Buffalo Creek and Muddy Creek. Chain carriers were Benjamin Robinson and James Patton, surveyor was James Carter. Deed was recorded on 1/2/1760. William arrived from Maryland with John Thompson, John Todd and John Scott. William’s brother, John, was appointed constable on the south side of Grants Creek in 1753. William Robinson Sr. was the father of these brothers and he died in 1757 according to Rowan County Wills, A, 143.

James Hutton applied for several land warrants on 8/7/1753 consisting of over 20,000 acres near or along Muddy Creek. James was born in 1715 and died in 1795. This tract was part of the original “Wachovia” Moravian tract. James was one of the leaders in the Moravian church. More interesting finds on James Hutton. More Links.

William Thornbrough applied for a land warrant on 12/1/1753 consisting of 640 acres near Deep River and Muddy Creek. Chain carriers were Isaac Robbins and Michal Robbins, surveyor was William Churton. The warrant was originally issued for Anthony Baldwin. The Thornbrough family originally arrived from Ireland to Maryland approx. 1713. Brothers, Joseph and William arrived in Carolina circa 1749.

Devolt Macklen applied for a land warrant on 5/11/1754 consisting of 400 acres near Muddy Creek. The deed was recorded on 1/10/1761. The Macklin surname is Irish and many are found in Cecil County, Maryland as early as 1706.

Henry Cossart applied for a land warrant on 11/12/1754 consisting of 1,280 acres near Muddy Creek. Henry is noted as a British citizen according to William Lenoir’s personal papers and court documents. To learn more about this, click here.

Herman Husband applied for a land warrant on 2/26/1755 consisting of 640 acres near Muddy Creek, Richland Creek and Deep River. This warrant was not completed. Herman owned a plantation in Maryland and married in 1743. He traveled to Carolina before 1750 and owned several tracts of land away from Muddy Creek. He was a known Quaker and active during the American Revolutionary War. After his wife died in 1762, he moved south from the Piedmont area.

Henry Antes applied for a land warrant on 3/14/1755 consisting of 280 acres near Muddy Creek. Johann Henry Antes was born in 1701 in Germany. He traveled with other Moravian leaders to visit Carolina in order to purchase land for a new settlement. He was residing in Bethlehem, PA at the time and upon his return from Carolina, he fell ill and died. Several books claim that Henry Antes was the leader who acquired and applied for the land of “Wachovia”, but this is not true. James Hutton was the clergyman who arranged the Moravian transaction. Henry did apply for this particular land warrant, but the deed was never recorded. To learn more about this family, click here.

Jacob Lash applied for a land warrant on 2/6/1759 consisting of 640 acres near Stewarts Branch, Gargales Creek and Muddy Creek. The deed was recorded on 2/22/1759. Jacob arrived in Carolina in 1753 and was among the first Moravian settlers from Pennsylvania. The interesting fact here is the timeline from warrant to deed completion. It appears that the date for the land warrant was transcribed incorrectly in the NC Archives and should have been 2/6/1755 according to Rowan County. To read more about Jacob’s family, click here.

Solomon Sparks, relative of Charles mentioned earlier, applied for a land warrant on 9/22/1760 consisting of 700 acres near Yadkin River and Muddy Creek. Solomon and brother Jonas were appraisers of Phillip Howard’s estate dated 1753 in Rowan County Wills.

William Churton applied for a land warrant on 5/30/1761 and on 6/26/1761. The first consisted of 480 acres near Sparks Creek and Muddy Creek. The second consisted of 664 acres near Muddy Creek. Both parcels were surveyed for Charles Metcalf. William Churton was one of Lord Granville’s agents. Charles Metcalf is son of John Metcalf from England.

John Douthit applied for a land warrant on 2/9/1761 consisting of 640 acres near Muddy Creek. John arrived in America at the age of 15 and married Mary Scott in Maryland. To learn more about this family, click here. John also applied for another land warrant on 7/23/1761 which consisted of 700 acres near Muddy Creek, Moravian lands.

John Fraizer applied for a land warrant on 12/6/1761 consisting of 700 acres near Deep River and Muddy Creek. John was born in 1735 in Pennsylvania. He married Abigail Millikin and moved to Randolph County where he died in 1799. For further research on this family, see Quaker Documents of Guilford and Surry counties.

 Discoveries Are Waiting Among The Faded Pages

This concludes this segment of early settlers along the banks of Muddy Creek. Many of these pioneers were trained and talented with many trades such as weaving, wheelwright, pottery and much more. As you research, you can pinpoint the neighbors and close friends that traveled together down the Great Wagon Road to reach Carolina. A great many of these first settlers moved onward to other adventures but their footsteps were left for us all to discover and marvel on the remarkable details of their lives. The actual deeds can reveal more features such as exact location of land, adjoining land tracts, etc. Tax records will allow you to see how they were able to progress and adjust to their lives in the Carolina frontier.  Piedmont Trails wishes each of you great success with your own genealogy journey and encourage you all to look deeper within the records to locate the details that shaped our ancestor’s daily lives.

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North Carolina After The American Revolutionary War

During the years after the war, the pieces of many families remained shattered and separated. Although independence had been achieved, many continued to repair their homes, bury their loved ones and heal the wounds that were left behind. The lives of the settlers were forever changed by the onset of the war and it continued well after the last battle was fought on Carolina soil. To say this time was filled with excitement or happiness for all of the settlers would not be true. Hardships were many which resided with loss, separation and anxiety about the future. The settlers were strong-willed and held the capabilities to overcome the weight of sorrow. They watched their children grow and dreamed what they would become. They were loyal to their new country and worked hard to improve their surroundings. The Carolina wilderness was no longer the untamed forest. The state began to take on a new identity and with this new form emerged opportunities, wealth, knowledge and so much more.

Although business did thrive throughout the war, the years following were met with new opportunities and new entrepreneurs. The most popular business among the settlers was farming.. England discouraged cotton crops prior to the war in order to protect their woolen and linen manufacturers. After the war, cotton was beginning to be grown on large acreage plantations. These large farms were located primarily in the eastern part of the state. Tobacco was the most important crop prior to the war and was grown throughout the state. In 1730, Virginia banned the importation of North Carolina tobacco and in 1734, the first tobacco market opened in Bellair, Craven County. Pork was considered a wise investment for many settlers and proved to be quite profitable during the years after the war. Cattle was beginning to grow as well as poultry.

18th century clock (2)

18th Century Clock

Clock and Watchmakers were operating throughout the state after the war, only a few existed prior. Many of these were also jewelers, silver and goldsmiths. Charles Frederick Huguenine traveled to North Carolina and lived in Halifax. He was trained in Pennsylvania and operated a business in 1798. In Bethabara, Adam Keffler was listed as a clock manufacturer. Mecklenburg County recognized Jonas Cohen, native of London. Robert Eugan worked in Edenton and Peter Strong worked in Fayetteville. A total of 40 watchmakers existed in North Carolina during the 18th century.

The State Bank Bill was passed in 1805 and the first banks were Cape Fear and New Bern. Both of these originated in 1804. The State Bank of North Carolina was chartered and it began operating in 1811. The Federal Government did not issue paper notes until the Civil War. The individual banks produced the bank note currency that existed during the early years of the 19th century.

Gold mining became extremely popular in Cabarrus County after 1799. Underground mining was present all throughout the state by 1825. Everyone in the area would mine for gold in some form during this time, hoping to “strike it rich”.

The first paper mill was built near Hillsborough in 1771. The mill was built to help with the paper shortage during the war. Another paper mill was constructed and operated by Gottlieb Shober in 1790 in Salem. It thrived strongly until the year of 1879 when the mill shut down production. The first newspaper was the North Carolina Gazette, published in New Bern in 1751.

Many do not realize that two chain merchants existed in 18th century North Carolina. They were John Hamilton & Co. and Buchannan, Hastie & Co. These two companies were the dominant merchants on the eastern section of the state. They were both Scottish firms that would set up several stores and hire storekeepers to operate them. Both companies were very successful during the years after the war. To name all of the merchants of the state would require writing a book, so the following is a sample of the 18th century well-known merchants. Chowan County-John Porter, Bath-Giles Shute, Beaufort County-Edward Moseley, Craven County-John Carruthers, Salisbury-James Harrell (James operated his store from 1750-1780), Bethabara-Traugott Bagge (Traugott operated the store in Bethabara from 1768-1772, then in Salem from 1772-1800), Hillsborough-William Johnston, Pitt County-Matthew Scott, Mecklenburg County-Jeremiah McCafferty, Caswell County-John McCoy.

caldwell log park

The New Mill Located At David Caldwell Historic Park

Schools were not organized on a statewide basis following the Revolutionary War. However; several schools did exist within the state. A school was built in the year of 1745 in Edenton and another one built in New Bern in 1764. A school was opened in Hillsborough during the year of 1766. David Caldwell, a minister, organized a school in 1761 located in present day Guilford County. It was named Caldwell Log College and served as an academy. Dr. Charles Harris operated an apprenticeship school and trained approx. 90 students in Cabarrus County.

Years following the war shows approx. 3,500 physicians operating in North Carolina. Only 400 of these had undergone some sort of training and about 200 of these actually held medical degrees. Medical provisions were very sparse during the late 18th century and early 19th century. Moravians used peach blossoms to fight smallpox and sassafras leaves to purify the blood. White oak was used for dysentery. Many herbs and spices were used as medicine for the sick such as sage, rosemary, mint, mustard, nutmeg and many more. Common diseases during this time were Malaria, Typhus, Influenza, Smallpox, Whooping Cough, Tubercolis, Dysentery, Scurvy, Arthritis and Worms.

The Louisiana Purchase in 1803 allowed the western lands to be open to new settlements. This created new dreams for many of the North Carolina settlers and many migrated west through the Appalachian Mountains. For some families that endured great hardships from the war, the expansion allowed them to leave the war memories behind.

Cumberland_Gap

Cumberland Gap

Lands west of the Carolina mountains were settled mainly by different Indian tribes during the war. Beginning soon after the war, many settlers began to look for land investment in the west and soon settlements were allowed in Indiana Territory. This territory originated in 1800 and consisted of the northwestern sections from the Kentucky River to Fort Recovery. Present day states include Wisconsin, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and sections of Ohio and Minnesota. Records and documents can be difficult to locate for the Indiana Territory, but not impossible. In time, the territory was divided into individual territories and later each one claimed statehood.  The Great Wagon Road was still a vital link to and from North Carolina at this time and now many new roads were created that linked new communities and towns. The stage coach lines were more organized and developed by 1830. Town life was changing and growing daily for the settlers as rural life remained basically the same. As families were leaving North Carolina, just as many were arriving, so the state showed significant growth following the war.

great wagon road

Map of  The Great Wagon Road

Thank You all so much for your support of Piedmont Trails. Wishing you all great treasures to uncover as you research your history and genealogy. Be sure to browse the website for more new information and research links. Save travels on your journey.

 

 

 

 

Early Settlers Of Rockingham County, NC

18th Century Land Grants of Matrimony Creek

Rockingham County began it’s origins from Guilford County in 1785. The Cheraw Indians lived in the area for many years. Another name for them was often referred to as Saura Indians. They spoke in Sioux dialect and lived in villages between the Catawba River and Yadkin River. They migrated during the late 17th century to present day Stokes and Rockingham counties. Several brutal attacks occurred during the early 18th century which left the villages in dismay.  In 1710, the Senaca tribe from the northwest attacked several villages within the area. The Cheraw or Saura Indians soon migrated southeast to Pee Dee River. Rockingham received it’s name from British Prime Minister, Charles Watson-Wentworth, the Marquis de Rockingham. He was the Prime Minister during the 1765 Stamp Act.

Matrimony Creek begins in Virginia and flows south through Rockingham County until it reaches the Dan River near Highway 311. Ironically, the little creek in Virginia splits away from Bear Branch and continues to present day Highway 220 into North Carolina. There are two Matrimony Creek sections, and one creek. This is why location is so important to the genealogy researcher. In other words, Matrimony Creek joins Bear Branch and flows together for approx. 2 miles in Virginia. Matrimony Creek is rumored to obtain the name from a bachelor residing in the area. Of course, no proof of this is in existence, but it would be interesting to know the story.

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Sullivant

Owen Sullivant received a land warrant consisting of 400 acres along Matrimony Creek on March 20, 1753.

Cantwill

Isaac Cantwill is recorded as a preacher of a church located along Matrimony Creek. The record states that in 1756, the church has a total of 28 members. Matrimony Creek Primitive Baptist Church was officially organized on September 17, 1776. By 1790, Aaron, Charles and Jacob Cantwill (Cantril) can be located on the census for Rockingham County.

James

Among the first settlers of Matrimony Creek was a man named Abraham James. On August 27th of 1762, Abraham received 697 acres located on both sides of Matrimony Creek. Abraham moved his family to Wilkes County and can be located on the 1790 census.  Isaac James entered on April 19, 1779, 200 acres and was issued on October 22, 1782 Book 48, page 139 Grant 630. William James entered on August 1, 1780, 440 acres and was issued on November 8, 1784 Book 56, page 208 Grant 1000.

Hopper

William Hopper recorded 510 acres on May 10, 1762 Book 6, page 161 Grant 20. He originally entered 700 acres in 1761. The Hopper surname is very active in present day Rockingham County, but William moved his family to Wilkes County and can also be found on the 1790 census near Abraham James. Soon after, William moved again to Orange County. Several family members remained near Matrimony Creek. Darby Hopper entered 235 acres on February 26, 1795. The grant was issued on April 24, 1800 in Book 107, page 362, Grant 397. James Hopper entered 200 acres on February 27, 1797 and was recorded on December 20, 1804. Book 120, page 213, Grant 510. Other family notes consists of a Joshua Hopper married Eliza Green and moved to Jacksonville, Illinois where he died in 1851. Thomas Darby Hopper was born in 1731 in Virginia and died in 1820 in Rockingham County, NC. He married Mary Rebecca Morgan.

Gowen

Aaron Gowen entered 410 acres in 1764. It was issued on May 16, 1786 in Book A, page 33. Aaron sold his land to Turbefield Barnes on October 26, 1786 Book A, page 139. At this time, a James Gowen also sold land for a 100 pounds to Thomas Henderson. The 1790 census shows James Gowing listed in Rockingham County. For more family deed records, click the link here.

Callahan

Darby Callahan entered 53 acres along the creek. The grant was issued on November 17, 1790 in Book 76, page 197, Grant 77. The 1790 census lists Josias and William Callahan living in Stokes County. Ezekiel Callahan entered 2 tracts of land on April 7, 1779. 200 acres were issued on October 22, 1783 Book 54, page 38 Grant 725. 100 acres were issued on October 22, 1783 Book 54, page 119 Grant 912.

Harris

Jesse and Thomas Harris entered 175 acres along Matrimony Creek on October 13, 1798 and was issued August 20, 1802. Book 115, page 312, Grant 443. Nathaniel Harris entered on September 17, 1793, 60 acres and was issued December 20, 1796 Book 91, page 445 Grant 247. Nathaniel Harris also entered 350 acres on March 1, 1797 and was issued December 18, 1799 Book 106, page 191 Grant 381. Charles Harris entered on November 21, 1778, 200 acres and was issued on October 11, 1783 Book 54, page 122 Grant 918.

Jameson

Thomas Jameson entered 140 acres along Matrimony Creek on August 24, 1796. The patent was never recorded.

Johnston

Joseph Johnston entered on August 28, 1780, 589 acres and was issued on November 8, 1784 Book 56, page 219 Grant 1038.

Cook

Reubin Cook entered on May 23, 1780, 600 acres and was issued on November 8, 1784 Book 56, page 194 Grant 964.

Odle

William Odle entered 25 acres on February 8, 1791 and was recorded on July 16, 1795 Book 86, page 465 Grant 215. The 1790 census for Rockingham County shows the surname Odle as John, Joseph, Lewis, Uriah and William.

Carter

Nathan Carter entered 100 acres on February 11, 1797 and was issued December 18, 1799 Book 106, page 186 Grant 373. The 1790 census for Rockingham County shows a Thomas Carter listed.

rockingham cabin

Cobler

Christopher Cobler entered 300 acres on November 28, 1778 and was issued on March 1, 1780 Book 33, page 299 Grant 253. Frederick Cobler entered August 16, 1784, 50 acres and was issued on May 16, 1787 Book 65, page 141 Grant 1449.

Powell

John Powell entered 100 acres on March 30, 1779 and was issued on March 1, 1780 Book 33, page 337 Grant 291.

Roberts

Richard Roberts entered on September 6, 1778, 200 acres and was issued on March 1, 1780 Book 33, page 441 Grant 395.

Davison

Richard Davison entered on January 2, 1780, 440 acres and was issued on October 22, 1782 Book 48, page 61 Grant 466.

Roach

John Roach entered on May 17, 1779, 100 acres and was issued on October 22, 1782 Book 48, page 122 Grant 594.

Leak

John Leak owned many acres of land along Matrimony Creek in 1773. He organized Leaksville in 1795 and built his home near the Dan River. By 1800, John Leak no longer owned his vast amount of land in the area.

Price

Reece Price settled near Matrimony Creek. He built his home in the area and married twice. To learn the detailed history of the Price family, click the link here.

Grogan

Henry Grogan was issued 200 acres on March 1, 1780 Book 33, page 235 Grant 239.

Matrimony Creek was used as a guideline from Virginia into North Carolina. A trail separated from the The Great Wagon Road and wandered narrowly near Beaver Creek where once was a fort during the mid 18th century. The fort was to offer security from Indians who were still living in the wilderness at the time. During the Revolutionary War, the creek was used once again along with the old trail to direct the troops of  Col. Abraham Penn on March 11, 1781.

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Rockingham County’s history is filled with details that pertain to our ancestors lives. The way they lived, laughed, celebrated, cried and mourned. Matrimony Creek winds through the county, the lands of our relatives, just as it did many years ago until it joins the Dan River. Thank You for visiting our posting about the waters of Matrimony Creek and it’s early settlers. Wishing you all well with your journey.

 

4th of July Celebration

18th Century to Present Day

During the early summer of 1776, a document was signed declaring the birth of a new nation. The date, July 4th, 1776,  has been known as the beginning of the United States of America, one nation under GOD, with liberty and justice for all. John Adams would state that the true date of birth was July 2nd, but the signers of the Declaration of Independence completed the signatures on July 4th and so declared this date as the official birth of our country. The citizens of this new country watched as volunteered soldiers marched to war during that first summer. Many would not see their loved ones again. The first celebrations of independence consisted of many different formats. A popular theme was conducting a funeral for King George complete with procession, hymns and funeral service. Other themes gathered the citizens for a social party complete with music and food. Fort settlements left from the French and Indian war, were now equipped with continental solders. Cannons would be fired along with muskets to celebrate the new country’s birthday.

flag colony

As the years went by, the customs would vary and new ideas would surface such as parades, fireworks and barbecues. But the reason for celebration would remain the same. Massachusetts was the first state to proclaim July 4th as a holiday and by 1870, the famous date was proclaimed a federal holiday. Banners would fly on store fronts, festivities would be planned for months in advance for the birth date. By the early 20th century, small American flags would be flying in children’s hands eagerly awaiting the start of the town’s parade. Fireworks could be seen for miles against the dark night sky. The boom of the firecrackers would literally make the ground shake. The rumble of long ago remembered and embraced with unity.

During the 18th century, many church bells would announce the 4th of July. Gatherings filled with rejoicing, praise and admiration of the new country. Pride would be driven into the stories passed down from one generation to the next. So that all who listen would forever know how important liberty was, is and will be. As a small child, I was able to witness the bicentennial  celebration of 1976 in my hometown. My mother purchased dress patterns for me and my little sister reflecting the 18th century and made our dresses for the town celebration. The mayor dressed as George Washington and the entire town participated in the events. A time capsule was placed at the town library to be opened in 2026. Fifers practiced for weeks in preparation of the parade march. It was a time in my childhood that I will always remember. Years later, while researching my family genealogy, I discovered a picture of my great grandfather dressed as Uncle Sam during a 4th of July parade during the 1940’s. The newspaper was filled with details on the day’s events and a new story was added to my research. For our ancestors who were living during those turbulent early years, the country was young. It was a time of awakening filled with the ability to change the world and make it a better place for everyone. The 4th of July stood for a new way of life, a new beginning and better opportunities for the children, the grandchildren and the generations to come. The voices of long ago can still be heard. Their stories are filled with details as we all search the worn pages of documents. But, don’t forget to write your own stories as well. So your voice will join the pages of the researchers yet to be born.

I wish you all a Happy 4th of July as we honor 242 years of our country’s birth. I’ll end with a few words from our forefather, Benjamin Franklin, “Where Liberty is, There is My Country.”

Revolutionary-War

The Moravian Settlements

A Guide To History And Genealogy In North Carolina

If you have an ancestor who was living in the Piedmont area of North Carolina during the 18th century, you can rest assure, your ancestor associated with the Moravians or was a member of the Moravian church. This religious group traveled from Pennsylvania in 1753 and purchased 100,000 acres of land in North Carolina. Their first settlement was established in Bethabara in the year of 1754. By 1759, Bethania had been established near the Great Wagon Road which allowed travelers to stop at the small village and trade goods, spend the night and make new acquaintances. During these years, the French and Indian War was creating turmoil in the area. Many families sought refuge within the barriers of Bethabara and Bethania during this time. Other communities were Salem in 1766,  Friedberg, organized in 1773, Friedland in 1780 and Hope in 1780.

wachovia-1766

The Moravians were industrious, hard working and eager to share their religious beliefs with anyone who was willing to listen. All of the settlements were equipped with several businesses that traded various goods needed by the settlers. There were potters, blacksmiths, tailors, wheelwrights, bakers, taverns and doctors. The Moravians used The Great Wagon Road during the 18th century to travel back and forth to Pennsylvania and transport several items back to the Carolina settlements. They would also travel south to Fayetteville and Charleston, South Carolina. Gottlieb Kramer(Cromer), son of Adam Kramer worked for his father, a tailor by trade, and he would also transport goods back and forth via wagon. The settlers depended on the Moravians just as the Moravians depended on the early settlers. Together, they populated and grew the surrounding areas into large towns and communities.

The Moravians had strict rules in order to join their churches and become a member. Majority of the early settlers did not wish to join, but they needed the Moravians to purchase their crops or trade for needed supplies. The settlers also needed the Moravian doctors to attend to the sick which at times included not only the family members but the livestock as well. The Moravian settlements were the center of 18th century living in North Carolina.

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The records of the Moravians portray life during this time vividly and with great detail. The Moravian Archives Southern Province located in Winston-Salem, NC houses thousands upon thousands of records, diaries and journals dating back to 1753. These records contain data on all citizens living in the area and has proven to be a vital asset within my own personal genealogy research. The primary language among the settlements at the beginning was German, but as the years went by, English was spoken everywhere but during church services by the end of the 18th century. So, some of the records may be in old German dialect, but are searchable through the catalog database. The National Moravian Archives are located in Bethlehem, PA and hold all records pertaining to the Moravian church located in the northern region. The online website guides you through the process of researching their vast amount of records. The Moravian Historical Society is affiliated with the Northern Province Archives and together work hard on preserving the history of the Moravian beliefs and customs.

99 Garden Shed

“Felix Motsinger with a wagon full of turnips to trade. Allotted sugar.” Entry dated January 15th, 1773. The above is a translation from the tavern ledger book of Salem. Another entry: “Mary Hensen arrived from South Carolina wishing to join the brethern. She is an orphan and has nowhere else to turn.” Entry dated spring of 1783. I later located a reference to the same Mary Hensen that she was allowed to become a member of the church. Mary married and moved away from Bethania and lived her remaining days in the Meadows area of Stokes County. These are actual documents that I have collected through the years from the archives. Felix Motsinger was not a member of the church, but he was active within the Moravian settlements. According to the catalog, Felix was documented over 20 times in various journals and documents. This is a prime example of how the Moravians documented their daily activities. Without this vital information, many details of our ancestor’s lives would be forever lost.

The original Wachovia tract pictured earlier, portrays the exact location of the land purchase. In present day, the north line lies within the heart of Rural Hall, the south borders present day Forsyth County line with the east ending at Walkertown and the west ending at Muddy Creek in Clemmons. If you can trace your ancestor to the surrounding area, chances are the Moravian Archives has information pertaining to them.

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During the year of 1756, Indian uprisings occurred all throughout the area and many families living near Bethabara took refuge in the settlement. These families were living west of the Muddy Creek and north into present day Stokes and Surry counties. A typhus epidemic occurred during the summer of 1759 and killed many settlers all throughout the area. Moravian ministers were summoned often to conduct funerals and assist in burying the dead. There were also families located south and to the east in present day Guilford county. The majority traveled the Warrior’s Path from Pennsylvania, Maryland, Maine, New Jersey and Virginia. Nearly every settler stopped at Bethabara between the years of 1755 to 1759. When Bethania came into existence, Bethabara became a small rural farming community. Bethania was located right on the path of the Great Wagon Road, present day Reynolda Road, Winston-Salem and allowed settlers to stock up on supplies, spend the night and gather local news before heading to their destinations.

Friedberg is located in the northern section of Davidson County. The majority of these members arrived from Broadbay, Maine and were German descent. Friedland is located in Winston-Salem, just south of present day I-40 and High Point Road. Hope is located just east of the Yadkin River near present day Clemmons.

According to the Moravian diaries, no settlers were documented along the Yadkin River prior to 1752. That is not to say that no settlers can be found living in the Yadkin area during the time before 1752. The Moravians noted no settlers when traveling through the area in search for your desired property. Indian parties hunted these grounds and some of their artifacts can still be found today. Settlers who were not members of the Moravian church and settled west of the Wachovia tract are as follows. William Johnson-1757-600 acres, Evan Ellis-1758-651 acres, George McKnight-1762-611 acres, these names were among the largest tracts at that time. Other surnames were Long, Phillips, Matzinger, Teague, Rothrock, Kerner, Tesh, Weavil, Bodenhamer, Green, Collett, Iams, Dean, Crews, Dorsett, Braun, Valentine, Waggoner, Smith and Reid. These settlers arrived prior to 1770.

brothers house

The Moravian history of North Carolina affected our ancestor’s daily lives, whether it was trading crops for supplies, seeking medical assistance with the sick or requesting a sermon in someone’s house. The Moravians influenced the culture and the population of the area. Their presence enticed others to follow and settle in North Carolina. By early 19th century, many of the original Moravian customs were abolished such as allowing the church to determine who marries and what job you would have in the community. But, many of the original customs still exist today. For instance, all married women are buried along side of each other as well as married men are buried near other married men. Small boys with small boys and single men buried with other single men. Many Easter Sunrise Services were newsworthy due to the turnout by so many people during the late 19th and 20th centuries. Old Salem, of Winston-Salem offers tours in the 18th century village and the smell of fresh baked bread fills the streets from Winkler Bakery.

As a researcher of genealogy, I am so thankful for the precise record keeping of the 18th century Moravian church. They preserved our history with such vivid detail that it brings the past to the future. Don’t limit yourself on your search, visit the areas of your ancestors and contact local churches. You never know, you just might locate the missing link from your family tree. As always, Thank You all so much for your support and I wish you well on your research. Enjoy your journey!!