Early American Taverns

The definition of a tavern in today’s dictionary, means an establishment offering beer and liquor for sale while allowing consumption on the premises. During the colonial period, the tavern meant much more to the early settlers and travelers of the day. Just rounding the corner, a building appeared filled with aromas of food, wood burning and smoke. A jolly tune was playing on the fiddle and laughter filled the air. It was rustic to gaze upon it, but the walls were sturdy and the well was a welcoming sight to us all. A man met us at the wagon and invited us to dine with him and his patrons. I found myself smiling as I unhitched the team. The 18th century public citizen would have recognized the tavern as also being an inn, a public house and/or an ordinary. Majority of these taverns were also the private residences of the owner or operator. Beer and liquor license were fairly easy to obtain and if a person wanted to open a tavern for business, they would primarily only need the land and the building to begin the quest.

Settlements were established with the onset of a tavern. It may seem odd today to think of a new town beginning with a bar. But, during the 18th century, this was accepted widely and considered practical. A tavern was redeemed as a public space where a gathering of people were welcome to share their stories and their opinions. A tavern was also known for a space to rest from a weary day of traveling, a space to share a table of food and even learn new customs. Trade was accepted with means of haggling and bargaining from one farmer to a merchant or buyer. Political debates were welcome both private and public. Clubs were organized within the walls and admission guaranteed respect or displeasure among the neighbors. The exchange of money was allowed for purchasing drinks, lodging and much more. The tavern allowed society to grow, prosper and learn. Many taverns were also post offices and proclaimed the news of the day from far away places or just a few miles down the road. The tavern was the social media center of the 18th century and it participated in many roles throughout the colonies.

The Fireplace, Black Horse Tavern, Pennsylvania

As thousands of families traveled the Great Wagon Road in search of new opportunities, they often stopped at the taverns located along the way. From Pennsylvania through the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia to the Piedmont area of North Carolina, these taverns signified the civilization and the growth occurring within it. For years, the taverns lined the landscape in the northern colonies and beginning during the mid 18th century, the taverns began to appear rapidly in South Carolina, Georgia and the Northwest Territories. The keyword in describing these early taverns thrives from diversity. The differences between one to another are fascinating to research and historic to preserve for the future. The first tavern opening within the United States, would belong to the New York area. A map dating from 1626 displays a tavern located near the East River. The business was owned by Governor Kieft and he built it because he grew tired of providing lodgings for people in his personal home. The settlement quickly grew in the Manhattan area with the first streets named Broadway and Pearl. In the beginning, this was true with many early tavern owners. It was not the need to become a business owner, but rather the need to allow lodgings and shelter apart from the private residences of long ago.

Inside the Ye 1711 Inn Located in Connecticut

Tavern prices for various items depended upon the county court of that particular area. Tavern locations were very popular near courthouses due to the volume of citizens conducting business on a daily or monthly basis in the focused area. The county court would issue a license for operations, but not all tavern owners abided by the law. Although majority of tavern owners were men, many women took up the business as well all throughout the entire colonies. Many taverns offered much more than food, drink and lodging. Prostitution was widely known to exist at many taverns and a coffee house tavern would only recognize business organizations and upper class gentlemen upon entry, such as a private club. Such is the case for diversity among the early taverns.

August Term 1774

Tavern Rates for Rowan County, NC

  • Rates are listed as £ pounds to shillings to pence
  • Gallon West India Rum-0/16/0
  • Gallon of New England Rum-0/10/8
  • Gallon Brandy or Whiskey-0/10/0
  • Beer-0/0/.6
  • Peach Brandy-0/0/.4
  • Quart Toddy made with West India Rum-0/1/4
  • Stabling each horse 24 hours with hay-0/0/8
  • Stabling each horse 24 hours with English grass or clover-0/1/0
  • Corn or Oats for horse-0/0/2
  • Breakfast or supper with hot meat and small beer-0/1/0
  • Lodging per night good bed and clean sheets-0/0/4
  • Boiled Cider per quart-0/0/8
  • Punch per quart with orange or lime juice-0/2/0

In most cases meal pricing would vary due to the size and portions of the actual meal. Majority of taverns during this time period would charge 1 shilling for 1 complete meal which included drink. Between the years of 1753 and 1775, a total of 129 men and women were licensed to keep public houses of some type in Rowan County, NC. The list below names several of these tavern owners during this time.

William Steel operated a Salisbury tavern from 1764 until his death in 1774.

Alexander and John Lowrance were living in west Salisbury having never applying for a license by the county court. Account books exist of a tavern from 1755 until well after the American Revolution.

Adam Hall,Agnes Osbrough and James Rody were all charged in 1762 for selling liquor without a license. These were the only three known charged during the 18th century in Rowan County, NC.

Thomas Bashford tavern keeper charged with over pricing wine.

William Temple Coles operated a tavern.

Peter Johnson was charged with keeping a disorderly public house.

John Oliphant lived along a ford on the Catawba River and operated a tavern.

William Edmond warned others to beware of the tavern owned by John Oliphant due to over pricing.

Robert Parris sued Peter Johnston for debt not paid. The evidence was ledger book presented by Robert that listed toddies and slings purchased by Johnston on credit.

Ann Caduggen, alias Ann Nichols operated a public house.

Majority of taverns would offer at least 1 large table, several benches and plates, spoons and knives for eating. The tavern located in Bethabara was 15ft.x20ft. and consisted of 2 stories. This tavern was most likely the largest in the immediate area during the time period of 1757. The most active months for taverns in the Piedmont area of North Carolina was the month of August. This would have been after the harvest of wheat and prior to the corn harvest. The slowest months were November and December. Court dates would also attribute to more visits from the local citizens in the area.

Tavern records are not easily accessible nor are they easy to locate. Ledger books were often left with the individual’s family members and were often discarded at some point. However, early maps offer great details to the exact locations of these establishments and local historical societies can offer more details if available. If you have learned that your ancestor operated a tavern during the 18th century, you can rest assure they lived an extraordinary life filled with spectacular events. They were often the first one to welcome new families to the area and were most likely to know the gossip news of the day as well. They were not exempt from hardships or relieved from the terrors of Indian attacks or conflicts of war. In fact, numerous taverns were often attacked by both and many owners lost their lives because of their business.

The road was the key to their success and majority of tavern owners were forced to participate with road maintenance within their area. The owner was also responsible for the upkeep of his or her establishment and to gain a respect from neighbors and citizens of the community. It is safe to say that the taverns of this era were definitely the hub of social media during the 18th century. Piedmont Trails wishes you all great success with your research and Thank You all so much for your support. Enjoy Your Journey to the Past !!

Advertisements

Early Settlers On The Banks of The Deep River

The Deep River of North Carolina spans a length of 125 miles from present day Sandy Ridge Road in Guilford County to Chatham County near Moncure. Several Indian artifacts have been found along it’s banks and in researching the name of the river, “sapponah”, an Indian name meaning deep river seems to be the origin. John Lawson recorded in his diary of many bison, several Indian nations and fertile soil along the river during the years of 1700 and 1701. The river is filled with large rocks and boulders with soft waters. This allowed easy paddling down the river for early travels and trade. The history of the river is enormous ranging from the early years to present day. New settlements were established with new grist mills, saw mills, schools and buildings of worship. Land grants are recorded for the Deep River area as early as 1749 located then in Anson and Bladen counties. Several skirmishes occurred during the American Revolutionary War and one of the first cotton mills was built in Ramseur along the river. This article will give details about the early settlers during 1749-1755. Majority of these families migrated from Pennsylvania, Massachusetts and Virginia. They traveled in small groups to reach the lands that John Lawson described 50 years earlier.

The title page of A New Voyage to Carolina by John Lawson 1709 Image courtesy of Archive.org

Benjamin Foreman-Received a land grant dated October of 1749 consisting of 149 acres lying on the north side of Deep River in Bladen County. The beginning of his tract was located approx. 1/4 of a mile from the mouth of Buck Creek and near Hobby’s Island. Measured to a forked oak tree and followed the Deep River to the first station. Benjamin died in 1796 in Chatham County, NC. At the time of his death, he owned 2 horses, 3 cows and 6 hogs. He also owned 1 cart and 1 pair of wagon wheels. A special note as well that consisted of, “panel of books”.

George Fagon-Received a land grant dated September 30th of 1749 consisting of 200 acres. Located approx. 4 miles above the Great Falls along the Deep River.

Abraham Creeson applied for a land grant in January of 1749 for 200 acres. The deed was never issued and recorded. The chain carriers were Edward Hughes and Richard Wainpot. These were men who worked for surveyor Charles Robinson. After Abraham’s death, his son Joshua Creeson settled in present day Surry County. His first born was named Abraham Creeson.

John Smith applied for 2 land grants, both consisting of 140 acres along the Deep River. The grants were issued in April 2, 1751 and both tracts are located at the Bear Creek connection to the Deep River. John was born April 4, 1729 and died during the year of 1815. He is buried at the Richland Cemetery located in Liberty, Randolph County, NC.

Nicholas Smith applied for 450 acres of land and the deed was issued on April 1, 1751 in Bladen County. His land is located along Buck Creek and Deep River. Nicholas died in 1828 in Richmond County, NC. His will contained no less than 10 notes where he had lend money to his friends and neighbors.

Zebulon Gaunt applied for a land warrant in 1752 along the Deep River consisting of 640 acres. However; the land was never issued to him. Instead, James Carter received the deed in January of 1761, nearly 10 years later.

John Haggart applied for a land warrant dated April 10, 1752 for 640 acres along the Deep River in present day Randolph County. The deed was issued 5 years later on December 24, 1757.

Phillip Haggart applied for a land warrant on April 10, 1752 consisting of 640 acres. The land joined both Abbotts Creek and the Deep River in present day High Point and Jamestown areas. The deed was issued in January of 1755.

James Carter received 642 acres along the south fork of the Deep River in May of 1753. The original deed states 701 acres but it seems that this was incorrect as I researched the remaining deeds pertaining to the property and noted the original tract was 642 acres.

James McCallaum applied for a land warrant in 1753 consisting of 300 acres near the present day county line of Guilford County and Alamance County. James married Mary Harris on April 14, 1787 and was issued 9 pounds on a pay voucher from the American Revolutionary war in 1783. James died before 1800.

Mill along Deep River

William Allen is claimed to be the first settler of Ramseur along the Deep River in Randolph County. After much research, I was able to locate several families living in the area prior to William Allen in 1792. It now appears that the McGee family was living along Betty McGee Creek and Deep River connection and operating a small mill when William Allen acquired the property in 1792. William did name the settlement Allen Falls and attempted a log dam at the water connections in 1799. But this failed years later due to flooding. Hezekiah Allen and Henry Kivett are attributed to have built the first saw mill and grist mill in the Ramseur area. Joseph McGee was actually the first mill operator of this area. His death allowed the land to exchange from McGee to Allen in 1792. To date, I have found no proof of Hezekiah Allen, but I was able to locate Henry Kivett and his home located in Liberty, Randolph County. Henry died in 1882. Years later, the name of Allen Falls failed as well and the settlement was renamed Ramseur.

For years, researchers have been trying to pinpoint the exact location of Thomas Cox and his mill along the Deep River. Herman Cox was the first Cox member to settle along the river in 1757. His brothers, Isaac and William also settled along the Deep River. All three applied for land grants and owned a great deal of property. Thomas Cox operated his mill in 1784 and it appears to be at the water connection of Mill Creek and the Deep River. The discovery of this mill was located on a old map among the archives.

Proof Discovery of Thomas Cox and his mill along the Deep River

During the year of 1754, permission was granted to Deep River Friends to hold monthly meetings and worship. For the next several years, these meetings were held in the home of Benjamin Beeson until the first meeting house was built in 1758. This Quaker Meeting house was built in present day Guilford County near the Deep River. Many believe that the original members were all from Nantucket, Massachusetts, but this simply is not true. Many of the original members were born in Pennsylvania, Virginia and even North Carolina. Majority of these families traveled the Great Wagon Road into the area with the exception of the Nantucket group. This group traveled by way of the Atlantic Ocean to the Carolina coast. For a partial list of the original members, click here.

Howell Brewer applied for a land grant in Bladen County during the year of 1753. The deed was issued in February of 1754 for the amount of 200 acres along the Deep River. The property is located in present day Randolph County. Howell is listed on the 1790 census living in the same area with a total of 11 persons living in his home.

Phillip Hogget received a land grant dated January of 1755 in the amount of 420. The property is located along the banks of Deep River and Richland Creek. Phillip continued to live in Guilford county until 1800 when he moved to Randolph County.

Buffalo Ford, along Deep River, was one of the most popular crossings located in present day Randolph County. Island Ford was yet another popular crossing. The historical data in relevance to the Buffalo Ford dates back to when the buffalo roamed the Carolina wilderness. Indian trails would follow the buffalo trails, thus the creation of this ford crossing the Deep River.

Island Ford at Deep River

The Deep River of North Carolina continues to provide it’s history and genealogy everyday. The best resources for researching this area is on a local level. If you are planning a genealogy trip in the future, the Deep River area from Guilford County to Chatham County, NC is filled with data from the Colfax area to Moncure. As always, Piedmont Trails wishes you great success with your research. Enjoy Your Journey !!

Early Pioneers of Western North Carolina

Present Day Watauga County

Many families traveled The Great Wagon Road from Pennsylvania and settled throughout Virginia. Others migrated further south to the Piedmont area of North Carolina during the mid 18th century. North Carolina was a wild frontier at the time and yet other families traveled west to forbidden lands. These pioneers traveled across the Yadkin River and endured the rough terrain of the Blue Ridge Mountains. This blog will give details of the early settlers in present day Watauga County, NC. Watauga was established in 1849 from several counties, Ashe, Caldwell, Wilkes and Yancey. By the mid 19th century, over 600 families were living in present day Watauga County and held a history for nearly 100 years in this vast mountainous terrain. Various reasons caused these families to settle here, such as the privacy the mountains could provide. Another reason was the words shared by so many of the upcoming war for independence. Taxes, opportunities and freedom for religion and freedom to dream are just a few of the explanations why these early settlers arrived.

A Glimpse Into Watauga County, NC

John Adams was a drummer at the age of 15 during the American Revolutionary War. He was present during the Battle of Yorktown which began October 9, 1781 and ended with Cornwallis surrendering October 18, 1781. Adams was among the French fleet of General the count de Rochambeau. The fleet soon departed for the West Indies still under the pursuit of the British. Young John Adams stayed behind, hiding in a sugar barrel. Once he was sure his ship had sailed, he wandered the streets of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and learned how to become a cabinetmaker. He later sailed on a whaling ship along the Cape Fear River in North Carolina. He departed the ship and traveled to Rowan County where he met and married Esther Hawkins on September 17, 1795. The couple’s first two children were born in Rowan County, Francis and Squire. During the year of 1799, John Adams brought his family to the Cove Creek area of present day Watauga County, then located in Ashe County. He built a log cabin, farmed and became known as a cabinetmaker in the area. John was born circa 1762 and was later known to be living in Sarlat, which is 40 miles from Bordeaux, France. The French fleet to which he was assigned returned to Philadelphia in order to retrieve soldiers who deserted or who were left behind. It is at this time that John embarked on the whaling vessel for North Carolina. This very same reason could have been the result of John Adams settling in Watauga County and the remote area of Cove Creek. The couple had ten known children. John died at 1:00pm, Thursday, July 24, 1823 and was buried the next day. Esther Adams was born in 1774 in Orange County, NC. She was a charter member of the Cove Creek Baptist Church which was organized in 1799. Esther continued to live in the log home after John’s death until 1859, the time of her death. Children of this union are 1-Francis(1797-1846), Squire(1799-1877), Rachel(1800-1834), Sarah(1802-1823), Tarleton(1805-1877), Allen(1807-1893), Martha(1808-?), George(1809-1827), Alfred(1811-1870) and Elizabeth(1813-?).

Dr. Ezekiel Baird was born in Monmouth, New Jersey to Andrew and Sarah Baird. His mother, Sarah died in New Jersey and left her son twenty shillings in her will. Soon after her death, Ezekiel Baird traveled the Great Wagon Road with his wife Susanna Blodgett Baird to North Carolina. They traveled with a small party to the Watauga County area known today as Valle Crucis along Baird’s creek. The couple built a home and had three sons, Bedent(1770-1862), Blodgett and William. During 1795, Ezekiel and his son, Blodgett left the area to travel west. The family may have contemplated the idea of moving further west as many families during this time were doing. But, Ezekiel and his son never returned to Watauga County. Susannah continued to live in the home and was the first person to be buried in the Baird Cemetery located in Valle Crucis.

Watauga River

Thomas Bingham was born in Norwich, Conn. to his parents, namely Thomas Bingham and Mary Rudd. Thomas traveled the Great Wagon Road to Virginia where he met and married Hannah Backus. This family continued to live in Virginia until William, grandson of Thomas II moved to Reddy’s River, Wilkes County and married Mary Elizabeth McNeil. William’s son, George moved to Watauga County and married Mary Ann Davis in 1833.

William Coffey was born November 29, 1782 in present day Wilkes County, NC. He lived with his parents, Thomas and Sarah Fields along the upper Yadkin River. William married Anna Boone on October 18, 1804 in a small log home near present day Boone, Watauga County. They lived at the forks of Mulberry Creek and had the following children. Daniel(1805), Welborn(1807-1897), Gilliam(1810). Celia(1813-1899) and Calvin(1819) William Coffey died in 1839 and Anna remained a widow up to her death which occurred in 1876.

Michael Cook was born July 23, 1773, son of Adam Cook. He married Ann Elizabeth Arney. The couple moved to present day Watauga County and entered 600 acres by paying 5 cents an acre. The couple had at least 11 known children: Catherine(1798-1840), John(1800), Adam(1802-1865), Henry(1804), Mary(1806), Jacob(1808-1873), Michael Jr(1810), David(1814-1850), William(1815-1876), Elizabeth(1818-1846) and Robert(1820). Michael operated one of the first grist mills in the area and was located along the banks of Goshen Creek. Michael Cook died during the spring of 1844 according to will documents.

Benjamin Dugger was living in present day Watauga County during the year of 1787. He purchased land in the Brushy Forks area and was the father of at least 3 children. Several of Benjamin’s family members followed him to the area between the years of 1795 and 1805. John Dugger, born 1780 in Wilkes County, moved to the Watauga County area and settled near his relative, Uncle Benjamin.

Landrine Eggers is the son of George and Arie Beard Eggers. Landrine was born in 1757 and lived in Freehold, New Jersey until the family moved to Goshen, New York. Landrine and brother, Daniel Eggers both settled in the Jersey Settlement of Rowan County, NC. Both of these men served during the American Revolutionary War. Landrine married Joanna Silvers on April 16, 1779 and traveled to Watauga County later that same year along with his brother, Daniel and his family. They settled near Three Forks Baptist Church where they all were active members.

Conrad Elrod settled in present day Blowing Rock, Watauga County before 1800. His friends referred to him as “Coonrod”. He was born in 1749 to Wilheim and Anna Boschel Elrod. He was baptized in 1750 at the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Frederick, Maryland. Conrad had at least 5 children: Adam(1787-1875), Mary, Peter, William(1795-1867) and Alexander(1802-1894).

Ebenezer Fairchild was born in 1730 and lived with his parents, Caleb and Anne Fairchild in Stratford, Conn. Ebenezer married Salome Goble in August of 1750 at the First Presbyterian Church in Morristown, New Jersey. Salome died during childbirth and Ebenezer married Mary in 1755. Ebenezer’s children are Sarah(1751) Salome(1753), Abigail, Ann and Cyrus(1767-1853). Ebenezer was a charter member and elder of Dutchman’s Creek, now known as Eaton’s Baptist Church. Ebenezer was a known minister of Three Fork’s Baptist Church.

This marks the end of segment 1 in this series. Please be sure to visit our site for weekly updates and upcoming segments on this series and others, such as Stokes County, NC Early Settlers, Rockingham County, NC Early Settlers, Surry County, NC Early Settlers, Ashe County, NC Early Settlers and Early Migration Trails. Thank You All So Much for your support, Piedmont Trails greatly appreciates each of you. Stay the course and Enjoy Your Journey to the Past !!

Early Settlers of Ashe County, NC

Segment 1

Ashe County, founded in 1799 from Wilkes County, is located in the western mountains of North Carolina. It is named for Colonel Samuel Ashe, an American Revolutionary War veteran, a judge and former governor of North Carolina. The county seat is Jefferson, named for President Thomas Jefferson and established in 1800. An old buffalo trail allowed a path to the area near the New River, east of present day Boone, NC. This original trail traveled from the coast of North Carolina, through the Yadkin valley and up through the mountainous terrain located in the western section of the state. The trail moved further west through Kentucky and onward to the Great Lakes region. Indians used the Buffalo Trail for centuries with each generation learning from the former. Not only did they travel, but they also hunted along the trail. This was a means of migrating for the Indians as they moved across the wilderness of Carolina.

Community Map of Ashe County, NC

During the mid 18th century, men would venture into this area in order to hunt along the same trail that the Indians used for hundreds of years. These men were otherwise known as “Long Hunters”, the name was not attributed to the long rifles they most frequently used, but rather the length of time they would spend on hunting expeditions. These men were adventurous and courageous. They depended on their skills for survival and hunting game to provide for their families in way of fur trading, food, etc. Many of the Long Hunters would travel in packs of 18 to 20 men setting up a Station Camp in the wilderness. The party would set out on the trail in October and return by March or April of the following year. Two pack horses for each man was common along with various supplies such as lead, powder, bellows, hand vise, files, screwplates, tomahawks, flour, etc. They would return home with fur pelts and hides used for trading and selling on the market within the surroundings of their home.

Aerial View of the New River, Ashe County, NC

One of the early Long Hunters was John Findley who led Daniel Boone through the Cumberland Gap in 1769 on the way to Kentucky. Michael Stoner accompanied Daniel Boone to Kentucky in 1774 to warn a surveying party of possible Indian attacks. James Dysart, Castleton Brooks and James Knox became very wealthy due to their skills from the hunting expeditions. Elisha Wallen created a huge Station Camp in 1761 in present day Ashe County, NC. William Carr was a known Long Hunter as well as Humphrey Hogan who later became a school teacher and was later located in Washington County, Virginia in 1778.

After the French and Indian war, this area was defined by a line cresting the mountain tops. All lands that held waters flowing west towards the Mississippi were named “backwaters”. These lands were prohibited from early settlement prior to 1763. Before the American Revolutionary war, Thomas Calloway moved his family to the area. He was a well known captain of the colonial troops during the French and Indian war. The home was located along the New River between Beaver Creek and the Obids Creek. Thomas Calloway(1700-1800) and Daniel Boone were good friends and hunted together in the area several times. Thomas is buried near the New River Bridge located along Highway 163. It is rumored that the original stone seen on Thomas Calloway’s grave site was given to the family by Daniel Boone. William Doub Bennett was known to have several hunting cabins during the early 1750’s, near the New River prior to the French and Indian war. The cabins are noted by General Griffith Rutherford when he led the militia against the Indians in 1760. He documented the location of several cabins used by hunters in 1763.

Richard Baugess Mill on Big Windfall Creek

Despite the discouragement of settling this area prior to 1763, Virginia encouraged early settlements west of the Appalachian Mountains. This act was to remove the French from the Ohio Valley during the French and Indian war. The New River was named at this time in honor of Mr. New who operated a ferry near Radford, Virginia. Prior to the name, the river was known to hunters as Wood’s River in honor of Major Abraham Wood who arrived in the area as early as 1654. During the mid 18th century, Ulrich Kessler purchased land in the area with 300pds. He was a well known preacher who at times became intoxicated prior to church services. Ulrich encouraged his congregation to follow him and this brought new settlers to the area. This article will focus on a small portion of the early settlers. Piedmont Trails will have several segments on this series in the coming months.

Micajah Pennington was the son of Isaac Pennington of Goodstone Manor, Kent England. Micajah was born in 1743 and arrived to the colonies as a young man. His father, Isaac, was the father-in-law of William Penn of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is believed that through this connection, Micajah arrived in Philadelphia and migrated down the Great Wagon Road to Carolina. He married Rachel Jones in January of 1761 and the couple had at least nine children. Elijah, Micakah, Mary, Levie, Edward, Rachel, Elizabeth, Sarah and Joahaner. During the year of 1785, Micajah received a land grant of 100 acres along Elk Creek in present day Ashe County. Pennington Gap, Virginia was named after Micajah’s son, Edward settled in the area during the year of 1802. Elijah married Susannah on 9/9/1800 and continued to live in the Ashe County area. The couple had a son, Elijah Pennington who married Mary Osborne and they had the following children; Isaac, Elijah, Lue, Peggy, Sarah and Mary.

Isaac Pennington (great grandson of Micajah Pennington) with wife Martita Osborne Pennington

Henry Dulhuer was located in North Carolina during the late 18th century. A total of two land deeds can be found for him in present day Ashe County. 100 acres along Buffalo Creek was purchased with sixty silver dollars from Peter Fouts in 1801. 300 acres which was originally granted to Lawrence Younce, later granted to Peter Fouts and eventually listed the owner as Henry Dulhuer. Henry and his wife had at least two daughters, but the fate of this couple would end in tragedy. According to family historians, Henry prepared for a trip to New York during the years of 1805 and 1810. He never returned home. The facts are not known concerning his disappearance, but it was widely known through the community that Henry was traveling to New York for a patent for his new invention. During this same time period, the wife of Henry died from burns received from fighting a house fire. The two daughters, Katy and Anna were orphans at a young age. Katy married David Burkett in 1817 and Anna married Daniel Bowman. Anna and Daniel migrated west to Indiana and was settled in the area by 1850. Katy and David had two sons, Daniel and David Jr. David Burkett died in 1820 leaving young Katy a widow. She never remarried and raised her two sons in Ashe County. Katy died after 1860. She is shown on the 1860 census living with her son, David Burkett Jr.

I gazed upon the sunrise as it stretched it’s rays over the mountain I took a breath from the new day Remembering the long dusty miles and the cold rain The wagon wheels may rest today This valley with it’s fresh water and fertile soil is all I need At long last, I am home

Piedmont Trails

William Miller arrived in New Jersey from England circa 1752 leaving his fiancée, Mary Aldridge behind. William bound himself out in order to earn money for Mary’s passage. She arrived circa 1764 and the couple were married. They migrated along the Great Wagon Road to Carolina and first settled in the Jersey Settlement of Rowan County. By 1783, the couple had moved to the western section of the colony and was living in present day Meat Camp community of Ashe County. The couple’s son, William Miller Jr. was elected to the NC House of Representatives in 1824. He died one year later.

Luke White served in the militia from Wilmington District, NC according to many family members. However; the documents that would prove this statement have not been discovered as of yet. The New Hanover courthouse was burned in 1798, 1819 and 1840 and this would have been the prime target to find these resources. It is believed that Luke was born in Virginia circa 1750 and died during the year of 1820 in Ashe County. Luke married Elizabeth Yokley prior to 1773. Luke and Elizabeth lived along Roans Creek where Elizabeth died prior to 1810. The children of this couple are Elilzabeth, Susan, Nancy, Sallie, Mary, Catherine, James, David, John, Luke Jr and William.

Back Roads of Ashe County, NC

Rev. William Ashley was one of the earliest Methodist preachers in present day Ashe County. William was born in Surry County, NC and married Elizabeth Calhoun in 1778. The couple moved to the western section of the state by 1815 and were living in the Little Horse Creek area. William became the minister of Methodist Episcopal Church in Warrensville. At the time, the family had moved to Staggs Creek. A private cemetery overlooking the North Fork of the New River has remained on the family property for over 150 years. William died January 31, 1852 and the couple had eight children. Polly, Cynthia, Cary, Frances, Nancy Malinda, Spencer, Zilphia and James Porter Ashley.

The community of Scottsville was named after Frank Scott who operated a store in the area. Warrensville was first settled in 1826 and was then known as Buffalo Creek. It was renamed in honor of a man who operated the first grist and sawmill in the community. Crumpler was named after Major Crumpler, a confederate officer. It’s interesting to know that the aristocracy of eastern Carolina during the mid 18th century referred to the early frontiersmen of the western lands as “offscourings of the earth” and “fugitives of justice.” As research has proven, many families settled this vast wilderness when it was illegal to do so. Opinions will vary to the reasoning behind their migration, but a well known fact supports the determination shown by these early families. The farming of rocky soil was strenuous and the continued threats by Indians were common. By 1810, the wilderness had transformed to a beautiful landscape portrait. The inhabitants lived in peace and remote from the ever changing environment below the mountains. To learn more about the history of Ashe County, visit the history of 1914.

This is the end of segment 1 of this series. Segment 2 will be arriving soon. We Thank You so much for your support of Piedmont Trails and wish you great success on your research. Enjoy your journey !!

The Beginning Journey West

After the American Revolutionary War, vast amounts of new land became available for settlement. Families could now travel west, past the Appalachian Mountain chain and explore new opportunities. You can imagine the conversations around the evening meals as considerations were discussed. The prospect of leaving the current family home and settling elsewhere would entice excitement and anxiety. Many of these families held memories of traveling the Great Wagon Road to the southern colonies. These families were experienced with traveling long distances and the dangerous situations that would imply. War veterans were weary after struggling through battles of war, sickness and loss. Many veterans and their families longed for new beginnings in a new area with peace. Veterans received land grants in these new locations to reimburse them for their services that were carried out through the war. The new land was the hot topic of conversation after the war. It brought excitement to many communities in Virginia, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, South Carolina and all of the remaining northern states. Local meetings were held in homes, churches and taverns. The majority of the population that were most interested in these meetings and conversations were farmers, wealthy entrepreneurs and young males between the ages of 21 and 30.

The 1783 map above can be used as an excellent reference point for distinguishing which state submitted land warrants, surveyed and operated land purchases, etc. As you can see, originally, the entire upper northwestern territory was once operated and claimed by the state of Virginia. For genealogists, this information is vital to research data and proof of lineage. For the early pioneers pondering on traveling to these areas, it was of little significance on statehood operations. Good road conditions, rich soil and open opportunities were much more important to the 18th century citizen. Regardless of the state, location or area, the farmer families suffered the most economically. Acquiring large land tracts were essential for any farmer to prosper within his community. Next seasons crops were planned for growth which provided the family with more. For instance, the money would provide for additional schooling for the children, visits to relatives who lived elsewhere, updates to the family home, etc. If a family suffered from several failing crops over a short span of a few years, this would greatly impact the family. Overtime, many of these families believed that the opportunities within the new western frontier would allow them to finally prosper. Farming families were close to their neighbors, especially the smaller farms. They relied on one another during harvesting, plowing the fields for spring planting and so much more. If one member of the community decided to leave, this would also greatly impact the remaining neighbors living in the vicinity.

Photo of 18th Century home and farm landscape.

Pioneers Traveled in Organized Groups

A few people knew someone personally who traveled to the new area and sent word back that they made it and the area was promising. Many families were encouraged to move based on the words and letters of others. All of these items did not hold truths about the area such as pamphlets, wagon guides, etc. The dangers however; were numerous. In addition to these dangers, the needed supplies to ensure survival were also numerous. It was unheard of for families to travel alone to areas west of the Appalachians. Even scouts and mountain men preferred to have a travel companion. With this being said, if you have a family ancestor who migrated during this time period to the northwestern territory, you may be able to locate their former neighbors as well. Many genealogists have been able to locate their own families by following the trails of their ancestor’s neighbors. Groups of pioneers traveled west. These groups usually consisted of at least one or more of the following: a guide, farmers, storekeepers, physicians and a pastor.

Once the decision was made to travel west, the family would prepare for the journey. The group would organize itself and combine materials to ensure safety and survival along the trail. A good reference for this would be local early church records. Documents have been discovered within church records that hold data of church members leaving the congregation to travel west. Personal information such as departure date and the names of the members who left the area. Depending on what the family owned, greatly depended on what the family took with them as far as personal items. During this time period, very little furniture items were placed on the wagon due to the weight and available space for it. Tools, cooking utensils, food and money were the essentials that would ensure the family’s survival on the journey and settling the new area. A weighted down wagon on good open roads with a good team pulling it could travel 25 miles a day. This will give you an idea on the length of the trip for your ancestor if you know both the departure and arrival locations. Of course, factors did hamper with the scheduling and the day to day routines of the journey. These factors were weather, sickness, lame horses or steers, wagon failures and more. Some of these could delay a family for days and/or even weeks.

The essentials for any journey west would have included a wagon, horses or steers, harnesses, saddles, tools and provisions. The tools would have been an axe, handsaw, chisels, hammer, shotgun and a knife. Also, wrought nails, coil of wire, 4 yards of rope or strap, hoop iron, cooking utensils and buckets for water. Fishing hooks, line and horseshoes would have been added to the list. Provisions would have included soap for washing garments and personal hygiene. Pickled foods as well as dried fruits, vegetables and meats. Cured ham and bacon as well as jerky. Flour, cornmeal, sugar, salt and various spices. Coffee and tea were also loaded. The wagons were packed basically the same with each family and over the years this method became the normal procedure for loading a wagon. The food provisions as well as the garments and linens were laid upon the centered flooring section of the wagon. This was the area where the family would sleep if necessary in the wagon. Other items were strapped to the interior or placed along the sides of the wagon walls.

The Genealogy Journey of the Western Territories can be Discovered Using Local Resources

If you are researching your ancestors along the western trail of the late 18th century and the early 19th century, several surprising resources are available for you. The number one source that comes to mind is early church records. These records are historical documents that can reveal vast amounts of details regarding church members and their lives. Departures to the western frontier engulfed a community. As stated earlier in this segment, pioneer families traveled in organized groups to the western territory. Many genealogists have used church records to not only prove lineage, but to bring to light the details of their ancestor’s lives. The second top source would be the local historical/genealogical societies. These organized groups can range greatly with the amount of documents on hand. Journals, personal letters, ledgers and community news have been located from the time period mentioned in this article. Ledgers located in Winston-Salem, North Carolina have been able to provide exact details on the last purchases from the local businesses prior to a citizen’s departure for the west. The state archives would be a great resource as well. These archives can provide you with veteran service, land grants and the property’s history such as sale date, etc.

Never limit your resources for genealogy or history. Understanding the western migration is one of the most extraordinary subjects of our history. The opening of the northwestern territory affected so many families in so many different ways. To learn more about early wagon trails and research links, please visit the Migrations Page and the United States Genealogy Links Page. If you are having difficulty finding a local resource for your research, let Piedmont Trails know on the contact page. I wish you well on your research and hope you find fascinating treasures along your trails. Enjoy Your Journey !!

The Great Wagon Road Enters Into South Carolina

The Alternate Route From Charlotte, NC to Augusta, GA

The last article concentrated on the detailed route of the Great Wagon Road through Kershaw and Camden, South Carolina. This last segment of the route will give details through an alternate route in South Carolina and onward to Augusta, Georgia. The settlers traveled through York County, Chester County and Saluda County. Many of these pioneers would settle all throughout this area and just as many would travel onward to Georgia. South Carolina during the early to mid 18th century was not the wilderness frontier that North Carolina clearly was. Land was not as plentiful through the area and this reason alone discouraged many settlers during the late 18th century. The journey was filled with hardships such as dangerous floods, but the settlers that traveled this route were adventurous and brave.

This route leaves Charlotte, North Carolina traveling 14 miles to the Catawba River crossing into York County, South Carolina. Today, Lake Wylie covers the landscape of the original route. Ebenezerville was one of the first settlements in this area. Traveling along State Highway 49 for approx. 17 miles, the route reaches Fergus Crossroads. The crossroads are now located on Liberty Street intersection in York. The first courthouse in the county was built here in 1786 and the name originated from two brothers, John and William Fergus. The crossroads were extremely important to the area as 6 different wagon road routes connected together at this point. The routes are listed as follows: 1-traveling northwest to Kings Mountain and known as the Rutherford road 2-traveling southwest to Pinckney’s Ferry on the Broad River 3-traveling south to Chesterville 4-traveling northeast to Charlottesburg and the Catawba River(The Great Wagon Road) 5-traveling east to Nation Ford 6- traveling southeast to Landsford in Chester County.

Map of The Great Wagon Road from Pennsylvania to Georgia

The route continues for 17 miles to the county line of Chester and Mt. Hopewell Church. Chester county was established in 1785 and the first court was held at the Walker’s home. This location was later known as Lewis Turnout in 1776. The road continues on State Highway 49 for 4 miles to the Broad River located in Lockhart. The actual crossing is now a bridge near the Union County line. Traveling 10 miles from Broad River, the road reaches Union, originally named Unionville. This community was established in 1765 and was named after Union Church. The original church stood near the location of Monarch Mill. It appears that the first settlers arrived in 1749 and greatly grew between the 1760’s and the onset of the American Revolutionary War.

From present day Union, South Carolina, the original route turns left onto State Highway 215 and travels 15 miles to US Highway 72. The route follows the highway for approx. 6 miles until Tuckertown Road is reached. The Tyger River is reached after traveling 7 miles and today is a bridge near the Newberry County line. From the county line to Enoree River crossing is approx. 18 miles. The river looks completely different from the 18th century landscape. The area has been flooded and now has the appearance of a lake where the original crossing ford would have been. From the Enoree River crossing, the route travels for 41 miles crossing the Crims, Wateree and Hollinshead Creeks. The present day route takes you along Broad River Road until you reach Interstate 26.

Tyger River, South Carolina

The road now reaches Saluda River and Lexington County. It is believed that the actual crossing of the river was located at the present day bridge along Interstate 26. The river crossing is 14 miles from Lexington which was originally known as Saxe-Gotha. The community was established in 1735 as one of the 9 original settlements to entice development during the early 18th century. Families were encouraged to travel to these locations, free transportation was provided along with free provisions for one year and free land. Many of the original settlers preferred to own larger tracts of land and to be separated from their neighbors. With this being said, many of these early settlers migrated to other territories and other opportunities. Upon reaching Lexington, the route turns on National Highway 1 and travels 17 miles to Leesville. The settlement of Johnston is reached after traveling 18 miles along the route. The Savannah River is approx. 28 miles from Johnston and the families would navigate the river to reach their destination of Augusta, Georgia.

The Great Wagon Road Consisted Of 800 Miles

Researchers have studied the migration that involved the Great Wagon Road for nearly 200 years. The exact number of families that traveled the road may never be known, but their legacy lives on as present day genealogists and historians strive to document the road. Many are astonished to learn that the historic road is not recognized as a National Historic Trail. Thousands upon thousands of families traveled the route for various reasons. These families suffered hardships that only can be imagined today. They also celebrated an independence and a freedom that encouraged them onward. Their stories of courage deserves to be preserved and honored as well as the original trail itself. It’s up to the present and future generations to complete this goal. Piedmont Trails is proud to announce the involvement of a volunteer group who is currently active on representing this historic trail as a National Treasure. Sharing this data with you all has been a fascinating journey in itself. I encourage you all to travel the route or portions of it, in order to understand the significance and the importance of The Great Wagon Road. During the coming months, Piedmont Trails will share stories of the famous trail complete with details on what your ancestors would have seen and experienced while on the road. Thank You all so much for your support of Piedmont Trails. Wishing you all great success with your research. But, most of all, Enjoy Your Journey To The Past.

The Great Wagon Road Enters Into South Carolina

The previous article left the Great Wagon Road on the banks of the Yadkin River in North Carolina. The road ended at the Shallow Ford Crossing in the year of 1748 before additions were added later. Carolina was a vast wilderness west of the Yadkin River and early settlements were discouraged prior to circa 1730. Edward Hughes operated a tavern in this location for over 50 years. The tavern was in place by 1753. The actual crossing is located near Cornwallis Drive and was comprised of natural stone that was flat across the river and shallow. Although during frequent rains and storms, the area was prone to flooding and would prevent wagons from crossing for days at a time. Early settlers living in this area in 1748 were Morgan Bryan, Squire Boone, James Carter, George Forbush, Samuel Davis and William Linville. It is believed that these settlers all traveled together down the Great Wagon Road from Virginia with the exception of Edward Hughes. According to documents, Edward settled in the area prior to 1748 and traveled from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. While traveling, Edward purchased a tract of land in the valley of Virginia during December of 1746 but left the area during the fall of 1747.

From the Shallow Ford crossing, the Great Wagon road ended in 1748 and a small pack horse trail continued from this point to Salisbury, NC. Present day route would be portions of Highway 158, Highway 601 and NC Highway 801. Once on Old Mocksville Road, the original route follows for 8 1/2 miles to Salisbury. This portion of the road was ordered for improvements in 1763 and was completed as a wagon road approx. 1764. Also, from the Shallow Ford crossing, another road was ordered in 1770 that would travel to Mulberry Fields, presently known as Wilkesboro. This road would follow present day Highway 421. It was known to the early settlers as Boone Road, named after Daniel Boone. The road connected to the Wilderness Road and eventually reached Kentucky.

Rowan County, NC

The road ended at Salisbury for a time until 1755 when the road was extended to the Mecklenburg County and the settlement of Charlotte, NC. The present day route follows US Highway 29. Charlotte was originally known as Charlotteburg and was first settled circa 1750. By 1768, the settlement was chartered as a town, largely by Scotch-Irish traders. In most cases, the presence of an inn indicated the location of the county seat. Salisbury and Charlotte both contained inns which allowed the county justices a residence on court days.

The actual route for the Great Wagon Road south of Charlotte has not been fully researched as it has north from Charlotte. Correspondence from historical societies, South Carolina State Archives and libraries support the following route. Traveling south along US Highway 29 to Lancaster County, South Carolina. This boundary was formerly known as the Catawba Indian Nation. This tribe survived the early settlers of the 18th century and survived the American Revolutionary War while fighting with the patriots against Cornwallis. They are a recognized tribe today and many are still living on portions of the original lands.

The road was known to the early settlers as Camden Road or Wagon Road. An historical road marker can be located at Twelvemile Creek which is now a bridge on Harrisburg Road and US Highway 521. Traveling along for 13 miles, you will cross three creeks which are now culverts. The names of these are Fording Causer Branch, Cane Creek and Camp Creek. The road then crosses Gills Creek and enters into present day Lancaster. Lancaster originated as a small settlement as early as 1759. The Waxhaw Presbyterian Church was located in the area during this time period. Lancaster was formed in 1795. Following US Highway 521 for approx. 20 miles, Bear Creek will be visible as well as Kershaw, an early settlement established in 1732. Us Highway 521 continues for approx. 25 miles until the settlement of Camden is reached. Both Camden and Kershaw are treasure troves for early history of South Carolina. Like Kershaw, Camden was established during the year of 1732.

Congaree River Columbia, South Carolina

Camden is located along the Wateree River and was a powerful waterway for the early pioneers. The town was originally named Fredericksburg and Kershaw was known as Pine Tree Hill. From this point, the road takes US Highway 1 and Taylor Street for 30 miles until the Congaree River is reached and the city of Columbia. Continuing on US Highway 1 and Augusta Road, the next 12 miles covers the intersection of present day Interstate 26 and US Highway 1. Lexington is reached on the road after an additional 12 miles. Lexington was formally known as Saxe-Gotha and established in 1735.

Saxe-Gotha Town Plat

Leaving Lexington, the road follows South Carolina Highway 23 for 21 miles to the Edgefield County line. Francis Higgins operated a ferry on the Saluda River and was well-known to many travelers along the road. At this point, the road follows South Carolina Highway 121 for approximate 30 miles until the Savannah River. The travelers would navigate the river to reach Augusta, Georgia.

The next segment of this series will concentrate on another route entering into South Carolina and arriving in Augusta, Georgia. I hope you are enjoying this journey with Piedmont Trails and hoping you are finding new hints and clues for your ancestor’s trails.