The Road To The Kentucky Frontier 1740-1780

The History and The People

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To feel the breeze along the western sky, To gaze upon the meadows of tall grass, To plant the seeds of tomorrow, To dream my dreams in freedom of thought I yearn to reach the fruit and live my life within it’s boundaries I long to gather my harvest and love my neighbor And when it’s time for me to leave it’s beauty, I long to rest under the canopy of trees and wildflowers.

Kentucky

Piedmont Trails

Kentucky (ken-tah-ten), the word meaning in the Shawnee language is described simply as “meadow”. This land lying west of the mountain range meant so much to many living during the 18th century. It stood for wonderment, surprise and beauty. Iroquois definition means “land of tomorrow”. The thousands of travelers who made their way across the rocky ridges were making plans for all tomorrows in Kentucky. Wyandot Indian language refers to the area as “dark and bloody land”. Many who arrived in Kentucky lost their lives due to Indian attacks, sickness and much more. Kentucky held within it’s boundaries, one promise, “The West”. The West was not only a place, it was a dream of peaceful lives, bountiful harvests, western skies and promising futures.

The Shawnee Indians were a southern tribe, however; by the early 18th century, majority of these people were living along the Ohio River, forced northward by the Wyandot in order to be used to fight against the Iroquois. They were a troubled society filled with resentment to many. They survived by military tactics that were used by both the Iroquois and the Wyandot. Rivals would continue for many years and the Shawnee were pushed, used and bartered by all large Indian tribes and settlements. This environment would create huge hostilities among the Shawnee people and the future events that involved them. The origin of the word “Kentucky” would prove to be a reflection of all translated meanings, meadow, dark and bloody land and land of tomorrow. During this segment, we will explore the early routes to the area known as Kentucky and we will point out lesser known facts about the roads, the trails and the people.

Fry-Jefferson Map of Virginia 1751

The present state of Kentucky was once known as Virginia. During 1734, Jacob Stover, John and Isaac Van Meter, Jost Hite and Robert McKay all began to acquire land in the Valley of Virginia. Settlers began to arrive from Pennsylvania to eastern Virginia and when Orange County was formed, these settlements beyond the mountains were included. The Kentucky area was known as Virginia just as the Tennessee area was known as Carolina. James Patton, from northern Ireland brought settlers by ship to Virginia in 1738. Patton became a leader in Augusta County and was co-owner of the Woods River Grant which consisted of over 100,000 acres. The acreage was beginning to sell tracts during the year of 1745. It has always been rumored that Patton explored the New River area, but as of date, no known source has proven this.

During the 18th century, a road was defined by it’s width accommodating a wagon and livestock. The roads throughout this region during this time frame simply did not exist. Only trails created by the Indians and the buffalo who migrated up and down in search of grazing grasses and salt licks. The Fry-Jefferson map of 1751 includes the New River, Holston, Clinch and Louisa rivers as well as others. But the exact location of these rivers are not noted. Other smaller waterways were included on the map such as Little River, Reed Creek, Sinking Creek, Peak Creek and Cranberry Creek, but no roads or trails were noted near them.

The first known record of a road to the New River area appeared on May 24, 1745 when James Patton and John Buchanan filed a report of pursuant to an Orange County Court order dated March 30, 1745. Patton and Buchanan had visited Frederick County line through Augusta County while identifying landmarks such as Beard’s Ford on the North River, Thompson’s Ford on the north side of the James River, Cherry Tree Bottom and Adam Harman’s location on the New River. The order was acknowledged and proclaimed to clear the route and produce a public road. Overseers were instructed to post signs for directions, all to be carried out according to the law. By November 19, 1746, another order named the Catawba/Noth Fork Road was approved to be cleared from the Ridge above Tobias Brights to New River to an Oak at the lower ford of Catawba Creek. Bright was appointed overseer with workers, William English, Thomas English, Jacob Brown, George Bright, Benjamin Oyle, Paul Garrison, Elisha Isaac, John Donalin, Philip Smith, Matthew English and others.

Catawba Road (courtesy of Virginia Frontier)

Two additional road orders for western Virginia were ordered on the same date. A road was to be cleared from Adam Harman’s to the river and the North Branch of the Roanoke River. Harman was named overseer of this project. The workers were named as George Draper, Israel Lorton, Adam Herman, George Herman, Thomas Looney, Jacob Harman, Jacob Castle, John Lane, Valentine Harman, Andrew Moser, Humberston Lyon, James Skaggs, Humphrey Baker, John Davis and Frederick Herring. The other order was issued to have the road cleared from Reed Creek to the Eagle Bottom and to the top of ridges located at the New River from the South Fork of the Roanoke River. Surnames associated with this project were Calhouns, Bryant, White, William Handlon, Peter Rentfro, Jacob Woolman, John Black, Simon Hart, Michael Claine, John Stroud, Samuel Starknecker and several others who were located in present day Pulaski County, Virginia.

The Early Travelers Walked or Rode A Horse To Western Virginia. The only road to allow wagons beginning in 1753 was The Great Wagon Road.

Early travelers into the region known today as Kentucky were John Buchanan during 1745. Lenoard Schnell and John Brandmueller of the Moravian Missionaries during the autumn of 1749. James Burke explored the area during the year of 1748. Dr. Thomas Walker embarked on the adventure during the spring of 1750. Walker noted the settlement located on the Holston River, but west of the settlement, he mentions no settlers. The Holston settlement documents Stalnaker and Baker as living in this area during 1750. The Thomas Hutchins map of 1778 displays a road crossing the New River and ending at the Holston settlement. Prior to 1763, settlements were not encouraged west of the mountain region. The Proclamation of 1763 offered these lands as rewards to those who served in the French and Indian War. Every field officer was entitled to 5,000 acres, every captain-3,000 acres, every staff officer-2,000 acres, every non-commissioned officer-200 acres and every private-50 acres. The governors of the colonies were not allowed to grant warrants or issue patents. All settlers located on the “western waters” were ordered to remove themselves from such settlements. Settlers were not legally able to have land located in the western sections of Virginia or Carolina.

Thomas Walker and James Patton had purchased many thousands of acres in the region. In fact, The Loyal Land Company filed a petition with the Virginia Governor on May 25, 1763 to renew the grant of 800,000 acres to Thomas Walker. The request was denied and Walker began to distribute advertisements throughout the colonies in 1766. These advertisements were requesting persons who had contracted lands from the Loyal Land Company to return and claim them, else the property would be sold. Majority of the land companies during the years of 1760 through the Revolutionary War ignored the King’s orders against surveying and purchasing tracts.

Cumberland Gap

As pointed out earlier, we now have uncovered two roads leading into the Holston settlement located in present day Kingsport, Tennessee. These two roads were established prior to 1750 and enabled settlers and land companies to explore the area and settle or sell land tracts. Daniel Boone and his party of 30 axe men started blazing a new trail into Kentucky in March of 1775. The trail traveled a direct route from Fort Patrick Henry to the Big Moccasin Gap. This portion of the trail was very well-known to Boone and to many other frontiersmen. Majority of authors have portrayed Boone and his party as originating from Anderson’s Blockhouse, but this is not the case. Documents prove that Boone traveled into Virginia in order to get supplies and to recruit his axe men prior to starting the trip. Boone had already explored Kentucky for years prior to blazing this new trail. In 1769, Boone departed from North Carolina and traveled well into the interior of Kentucky near Pilot Knob in present day Powell County. The route they followed was the Warrior’s Path, past Cumberland Gap to Flat Lick to northward near the Kentucky River. Boone had discovered the “inner bluegrass” area of Kentucky. Boone was very familiar with the Indian trails going into Kentucky and the buffalo trails that reached the salt licks and the rivers.

Back to March of 1775, Boone was hired by the Transylvania Land Company to blaze a new trail into Kentucky. An associate of the Transylvania Land Company was Joseph Martin, of Martin’s Station, who was friends with Dr. Thomas Walker. The new trail would depart from the Holston settlement and travel north and west to the present site of Fort Boonesborough. The trail was known as Boone’s Trace. This trail was the original road and only road leading into Kentucky from 1775 to 1791.

Reedy Creek Road and Island Creek Road

The famous Wilderness Trail name of today was not known until years after the Revolutionary War. The trail was changed slightly in 1792 from the original route and Boone was not associated with it’s changes although he had requested to be. The families who are known to travel Boone’s Trace are William Calls, Reverend Lewis Craig and his entire congregation and other neighbors from Spotsylvania County, Virginia. A young physician, John Ferdinand Dalziel Smyth and several friends, Colonel James Knox, his family and neighbors and Bishop Francis Asbury.

Thomas Speed, an early author, wrote a book in 1886 containing early migration paths and trails. This book incorrectly published the “Wilderness Trail” as reaching the Great Wagon Road at Fort Chiswell. This was the first time the name, Wilderness Trail was associated with Boone’s Trace. No previous early maps or surveys name or display a route titled “Wilderness Trail” before the printing of this book. He also stated that Fort Chiswell was built during the year of 1758 which is completely false, and it connects to the original trail. Speed went further to proclaim that the Draper family and the Ingles Family were the first two families to settle west of the Alleghany Mountains. This was also false. We may never know why these false statements were printed, nevertheless, they were and they actually changed the historical facts for generations. Judge Lyman Chalkley attempted to correct Speed’s mistakes in an article dating 1922, but after several years of deception, the truth was barely heard or not recognized at all. After more than 300,000 families used the trail to arrive in Kentucky during the 18th century, their stories were passed down from one generation to the next. By 1886, Speed published his book and the false statements were considered as facts. This affected our history to the extent that children were taught in public school systems around the nation that Boone’s Trace was the Wilderness Trail and it consisted of over 850 miles. Local communities filed claims during the early 20th century, stating their settlement lies along the “Wilderness Trail”. Many were quick to state that this trail not only traveled to Kentucky but also traveled to North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and even Maryland, according to Speed’s book. As the years went by, various towns and counties removed their statements and their claims but the history of Boone’s Trace stood defeated and many still question the trail to this day. The truth slowly emerges just as the details of our ancestors come to light by research.

To understand the early roads, one must learn from all of the documents in order to prove the road’s existence and how it was established. The early settlers of Kentucky endured great hardships along Boone’s Trace and many who arrived in Kentucky gradually left to migrate further west or returned home in the east. The early roads contain a vast amount of history and fascinating facts to share. The roads to Kentucky allowed many families to migrate west and begin a new chapter in their lives. Always strive for the truth among our history and our genealogy. Thank You so much for visiting Piedmont Trails. We hope you find fascinating facts with your research. Our ancestors left an amazing trail. Enjoy Your Journey To The Past !!

Early American Taverns

The definition of a tavern in today’s dictionary, means an establishment offering beer and liquor for sale while allowing consumption on the premises. During the colonial period, the tavern meant much more to the early settlers and travelers of the day. Just rounding the corner, a building appeared filled with aromas of food, wood burning and smoke. A jolly tune was playing on the fiddle and laughter filled the air. It was rustic to gaze upon it, but the walls were sturdy and the well was a welcoming sight to us all. A man met us at the wagon and invited us to dine with him and his patrons. I found myself smiling as I unhitched the team. The 18th century public citizen would have recognized the tavern as also being an inn, a public house and/or an ordinary. Majority of these taverns were also the private residences of the owner or operator. Beer and liquor license were fairly easy to obtain and if a person wanted to open a tavern for business, they would primarily only need the land and the building to begin the quest.

Settlements were established with the onset of a tavern. It may seem odd today to think of a new town beginning with a bar. But, during the 18th century, this was accepted widely and considered practical. A tavern was redeemed as a public space where a gathering of people were welcome to share their stories and their opinions. A tavern was also known for a space to rest from a weary day of traveling, a space to share a table of food and even learn new customs. Trade was accepted with means of haggling and bargaining from one farmer to a merchant or buyer. Political debates were welcome both private and public. Clubs were organized within the walls and admission guaranteed respect or displeasure among the neighbors. The exchange of money was allowed for purchasing drinks, lodging and much more. The tavern allowed society to grow, prosper and learn. Many taverns were also post offices and proclaimed the news of the day from far away places or just a few miles down the road. The tavern was the social media center of the 18th century and it participated in many roles throughout the colonies.

The Fireplace, Black Horse Tavern, Pennsylvania

As thousands of families traveled the Great Wagon Road in search of new opportunities, they often stopped at the taverns located along the way. From Pennsylvania through the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia to the Piedmont area of North Carolina, these taverns signified the civilization and the growth occurring within it. For years, the taverns lined the landscape in the northern colonies and beginning during the mid 18th century, the taverns began to appear rapidly in South Carolina, Georgia and the Northwest Territories. The keyword in describing these early taverns thrives from diversity. The differences between one to another are fascinating to research and historic to preserve for the future. The first tavern opening within the United States, would belong to the New York area. A map dating from 1626 displays a tavern located near the East River. The business was owned by Governor Kieft and he built it because he grew tired of providing lodgings for people in his personal home. The settlement quickly grew in the Manhattan area with the first streets named Broadway and Pearl. In the beginning, this was true with many early tavern owners. It was not the need to become a business owner, but rather the need to allow lodgings and shelter apart from the private residences of long ago.

Inside the Ye 1711 Inn Located in Connecticut

Tavern prices for various items depended upon the county court of that particular area. Tavern locations were very popular near courthouses due to the volume of citizens conducting business on a daily or monthly basis in the focused area. The county court would issue a license for operations, but not all tavern owners abided by the law. Although majority of tavern owners were men, many women took up the business as well all throughout the entire colonies. Many taverns offered much more than food, drink and lodging. Prostitution was widely known to exist at many taverns and a coffee house tavern would only recognize business organizations and upper class gentlemen upon entry, such as a private club. Such is the case for diversity among the early taverns.

August Term 1774

Tavern Rates for Rowan County, NC

  • Rates are listed as £ pounds to shillings to pence
  • Gallon West India Rum-0/16/0
  • Gallon of New England Rum-0/10/8
  • Gallon Brandy or Whiskey-0/10/0
  • Beer-0/0/.6
  • Peach Brandy-0/0/.4
  • Quart Toddy made with West India Rum-0/1/4
  • Stabling each horse 24 hours with hay-0/0/8
  • Stabling each horse 24 hours with English grass or clover-0/1/0
  • Corn or Oats for horse-0/0/2
  • Breakfast or supper with hot meat and small beer-0/1/0
  • Lodging per night good bed and clean sheets-0/0/4
  • Boiled Cider per quart-0/0/8
  • Punch per quart with orange or lime juice-0/2/0

In most cases meal pricing would vary due to the size and portions of the actual meal. Majority of taverns during this time period would charge 1 shilling for 1 complete meal which included drink. Between the years of 1753 and 1775, a total of 129 men and women were licensed to keep public houses of some type in Rowan County, NC. The list below names several of these tavern owners during this time.

William Steel operated a Salisbury tavern from 1764 until his death in 1774.

Alexander and John Lowrance were living in west Salisbury having never applying for a license by the county court. Account books exist of a tavern from 1755 until well after the American Revolution.

Adam Hall,Agnes Osbrough and James Rody were all charged in 1762 for selling liquor without a license. These were the only three known charged during the 18th century in Rowan County, NC.

Thomas Bashford tavern keeper charged with over pricing wine.

William Temple Coles operated a tavern.

Peter Johnson was charged with keeping a disorderly public house.

John Oliphant lived along a ford on the Catawba River and operated a tavern.

William Edmond warned others to beware of the tavern owned by John Oliphant due to over pricing.

Robert Parris sued Peter Johnston for debt not paid. The evidence was ledger book presented by Robert that listed toddies and slings purchased by Johnston on credit.

Ann Caduggen, alias Ann Nichols operated a public house.

Majority of taverns would offer at least 1 large table, several benches and plates, spoons and knives for eating. The tavern located in Bethabara was 15ft.x20ft. and consisted of 2 stories. This tavern was most likely the largest in the immediate area during the time period of 1757. The most active months for taverns in the Piedmont area of North Carolina was the month of August. This would have been after the harvest of wheat and prior to the corn harvest. The slowest months were November and December. Court dates would also attribute to more visits from the local citizens in the area.

Tavern records are not easily accessible nor are they easy to locate. Ledger books were often left with the individual’s family members and were often discarded at some point. However, early maps offer great details to the exact locations of these establishments and local historical societies can offer more details if available. If you have learned that your ancestor operated a tavern during the 18th century, you can rest assure they lived an extraordinary life filled with spectacular events. They were often the first one to welcome new families to the area and were most likely to know the gossip news of the day as well. They were not exempt from hardships or relieved from the terrors of Indian attacks or conflicts of war. In fact, numerous taverns were often attacked by both and many owners lost their lives because of their business.

The road was the key to their success and majority of tavern owners were forced to participate with road maintenance within their area. The owner was also responsible for the upkeep of his or her establishment and to gain a respect from neighbors and citizens of the community. It is safe to say that the taverns of this era were definitely the hub of social media during the 18th century. Piedmont Trails wishes you all great success with your research and Thank You all so much for your support. Enjoy Your Journey to the Past !!

Early Settlers On The Banks of The Deep River

The Deep River of North Carolina spans a length of 125 miles from present day Sandy Ridge Road in Guilford County to Chatham County near Moncure. Several Indian artifacts have been found along it’s banks and in researching the name of the river, “sapponah”, an Indian name meaning deep river seems to be the origin. John Lawson recorded in his diary of many bison, several Indian nations and fertile soil along the river during the years of 1700 and 1701. The river is filled with large rocks and boulders with soft waters. This allowed easy paddling down the river for early travels and trade. The history of the river is enormous ranging from the early years to present day. New settlements were established with new grist mills, saw mills, schools and buildings of worship. Land grants are recorded for the Deep River area as early as 1749 located then in Anson and Bladen counties. Several skirmishes occurred during the American Revolutionary War and one of the first cotton mills was built in Ramseur along the river. This article will give details about the early settlers during 1749-1755. Majority of these families migrated from Pennsylvania, Massachusetts and Virginia. They traveled in small groups to reach the lands that John Lawson described 50 years earlier.

The title page of A New Voyage to Carolina by John Lawson 1709 Image courtesy of Archive.org

Benjamin Foreman-Received a land grant dated October of 1749 consisting of 149 acres lying on the north side of Deep River in Bladen County. The beginning of his tract was located approx. 1/4 of a mile from the mouth of Buck Creek and near Hobby’s Island. Measured to a forked oak tree and followed the Deep River to the first station. Benjamin died in 1796 in Chatham County, NC. At the time of his death, he owned 2 horses, 3 cows and 6 hogs. He also owned 1 cart and 1 pair of wagon wheels. A special note as well that consisted of, “panel of books”.

George Fagon-Received a land grant dated September 30th of 1749 consisting of 200 acres. Located approx. 4 miles above the Great Falls along the Deep River.

Abraham Creeson applied for a land grant in January of 1749 for 200 acres. The deed was never issued and recorded. The chain carriers were Edward Hughes and Richard Wainpot. These were men who worked for surveyor Charles Robinson. After Abraham’s death, his son Joshua Creeson settled in present day Surry County. His first born was named Abraham Creeson.

John Smith applied for 2 land grants, both consisting of 140 acres along the Deep River. The grants were issued in April 2, 1751 and both tracts are located at the Bear Creek connection to the Deep River. John was born April 4, 1729 and died during the year of 1815. He is buried at the Richland Cemetery located in Liberty, Randolph County, NC.

Nicholas Smith applied for 450 acres of land and the deed was issued on April 1, 1751 in Bladen County. His land is located along Buck Creek and Deep River. Nicholas died in 1828 in Richmond County, NC. His will contained no less than 10 notes where he had lend money to his friends and neighbors.

Zebulon Gaunt applied for a land warrant in 1752 along the Deep River consisting of 640 acres. However; the land was never issued to him. Instead, James Carter received the deed in January of 1761, nearly 10 years later.

John Haggart applied for a land warrant dated April 10, 1752 for 640 acres along the Deep River in present day Randolph County. The deed was issued 5 years later on December 24, 1757.

Phillip Haggart applied for a land warrant on April 10, 1752 consisting of 640 acres. The land joined both Abbotts Creek and the Deep River in present day High Point and Jamestown areas. The deed was issued in January of 1755.

James Carter received 642 acres along the south fork of the Deep River in May of 1753. The original deed states 701 acres but it seems that this was incorrect as I researched the remaining deeds pertaining to the property and noted the original tract was 642 acres.

James McCallaum applied for a land warrant in 1753 consisting of 300 acres near the present day county line of Guilford County and Alamance County. James married Mary Harris on April 14, 1787 and was issued 9 pounds on a pay voucher from the American Revolutionary war in 1783. James died before 1800.

Mill along Deep River

William Allen is claimed to be the first settler of Ramseur along the Deep River in Randolph County. After much research, I was able to locate several families living in the area prior to William Allen in 1792. It now appears that the McGee family was living along Betty McGee Creek and Deep River connection and operating a small mill when William Allen acquired the property in 1792. William did name the settlement Allen Falls and attempted a log dam at the water connections in 1799. But this failed years later due to flooding. Hezekiah Allen and Henry Kivett are attributed to have built the first saw mill and grist mill in the Ramseur area. Joseph McGee was actually the first mill operator of this area. His death allowed the land to exchange from McGee to Allen in 1792. To date, I have found no proof of Hezekiah Allen, but I was able to locate Henry Kivett and his home located in Liberty, Randolph County. Henry died in 1882. Years later, the name of Allen Falls failed as well and the settlement was renamed Ramseur.

For years, researchers have been trying to pinpoint the exact location of Thomas Cox and his mill along the Deep River. Herman Cox was the first Cox member to settle along the river in 1757. His brothers, Isaac and William also settled along the Deep River. All three applied for land grants and owned a great deal of property. Thomas Cox operated his mill in 1784 and it appears to be at the water connection of Mill Creek and the Deep River. The discovery of this mill was located on a old map among the archives.

Proof Discovery of Thomas Cox and his mill along the Deep River

During the year of 1754, permission was granted to Deep River Friends to hold monthly meetings and worship. For the next several years, these meetings were held in the home of Benjamin Beeson until the first meeting house was built in 1758. This Quaker Meeting house was built in present day Guilford County near the Deep River. Many believe that the original members were all from Nantucket, Massachusetts, but this simply is not true. Many of the original members were born in Pennsylvania, Virginia and even North Carolina. Majority of these families traveled the Great Wagon Road into the area with the exception of the Nantucket group. This group traveled by way of the Atlantic Ocean to the Carolina coast. For a partial list of the original members, click here.

Howell Brewer applied for a land grant in Bladen County during the year of 1753. The deed was issued in February of 1754 for the amount of 200 acres along the Deep River. The property is located in present day Randolph County. Howell is listed on the 1790 census living in the same area with a total of 11 persons living in his home.

Phillip Hogget received a land grant dated January of 1755 in the amount of 420. The property is located along the banks of Deep River and Richland Creek. Phillip continued to live in Guilford county until 1800 when he moved to Randolph County.

Buffalo Ford, along Deep River, was one of the most popular crossings located in present day Randolph County. Island Ford was yet another popular crossing. The historical data in relevance to the Buffalo Ford dates back to when the buffalo roamed the Carolina wilderness. Indian trails would follow the buffalo trails, thus the creation of this ford crossing the Deep River.

Island Ford at Deep River

The Deep River of North Carolina continues to provide it’s history and genealogy everyday. The best resources for researching this area is on a local level. If you are planning a genealogy trip in the future, the Deep River area from Guilford County to Chatham County, NC is filled with data from the Colfax area to Moncure. As always, Piedmont Trails wishes you great success with your research. Enjoy Your Journey !!

Early Settlers of Ashe County, NC

Segment 1

Ashe County, founded in 1799 from Wilkes County, is located in the western mountains of North Carolina. It is named for Colonel Samuel Ashe, an American Revolutionary War veteran, a judge and former governor of North Carolina. The county seat is Jefferson, named for President Thomas Jefferson and established in 1800. An old buffalo trail allowed a path to the area near the New River, east of present day Boone, NC. This original trail traveled from the coast of North Carolina, through the Yadkin valley and up through the mountainous terrain located in the western section of the state. The trail moved further west through Kentucky and onward to the Great Lakes region. Indians used the Buffalo Trail for centuries with each generation learning from the former. Not only did they travel, but they also hunted along the trail. This was a means of migrating for the Indians as they moved across the wilderness of Carolina.

Community Map of Ashe County, NC

During the mid 18th century, men would venture into this area in order to hunt along the same trail that the Indians used for hundreds of years. These men were otherwise known as “Long Hunters”, the name was not attributed to the long rifles they most frequently used, but rather the length of time they would spend on hunting expeditions. These men were adventurous and courageous. They depended on their skills for survival and hunting game to provide for their families in way of fur trading, food, etc. Many of the Long Hunters would travel in packs of 18 to 20 men setting up a Station Camp in the wilderness. The party would set out on the trail in October and return by March or April of the following year. Two pack horses for each man was common along with various supplies such as lead, powder, bellows, hand vise, files, screwplates, tomahawks, flour, etc. They would return home with fur pelts and hides used for trading and selling on the market within the surroundings of their home.

Aerial View of the New River, Ashe County, NC

One of the early Long Hunters was John Findley who led Daniel Boone through the Cumberland Gap in 1769 on the way to Kentucky. Michael Stoner accompanied Daniel Boone to Kentucky in 1774 to warn a surveying party of possible Indian attacks. James Dysart, Castleton Brooks and James Knox became very wealthy due to their skills from the hunting expeditions. Elisha Wallen created a huge Station Camp in 1761 in present day Ashe County, NC. William Carr was a known Long Hunter as well as Humphrey Hogan who later became a school teacher and was later located in Washington County, Virginia in 1778.

After the French and Indian war, this area was defined by a line cresting the mountain tops. All lands that held waters flowing west towards the Mississippi were named “backwaters”. These lands were prohibited from early settlement prior to 1763. Before the American Revolutionary war, Thomas Calloway moved his family to the area. He was a well known captain of the colonial troops during the French and Indian war. The home was located along the New River between Beaver Creek and the Obids Creek. Thomas Calloway(1700-1800) and Daniel Boone were good friends and hunted together in the area several times. Thomas is buried near the New River Bridge located along Highway 163. It is rumored that the original stone seen on Thomas Calloway’s grave site was given to the family by Daniel Boone. William Doub Bennett was known to have several hunting cabins during the early 1750’s, near the New River prior to the French and Indian war. The cabins are noted by General Griffith Rutherford when he led the militia against the Indians in 1760. He documented the location of several cabins used by hunters in 1763.

Richard Baugess Mill on Big Windfall Creek

Despite the discouragement of settling this area prior to 1763, Virginia encouraged early settlements west of the Appalachian Mountains. This act was to remove the French from the Ohio Valley during the French and Indian war. The New River was named at this time in honor of Mr. New who operated a ferry near Radford, Virginia. Prior to the name, the river was known to hunters as Wood’s River in honor of Major Abraham Wood who arrived in the area as early as 1654. During the mid 18th century, Ulrich Kessler purchased land in the area with 300pds. He was a well known preacher who at times became intoxicated prior to church services. Ulrich encouraged his congregation to follow him and this brought new settlers to the area. This article will focus on a small portion of the early settlers. Piedmont Trails will have several segments on this series in the coming months.

Micajah Pennington was the son of Isaac Pennington of Goodstone Manor, Kent England. Micajah was born in 1743 and arrived to the colonies as a young man. His father, Isaac, was the father-in-law of William Penn of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is believed that through this connection, Micajah arrived in Philadelphia and migrated down the Great Wagon Road to Carolina. He married Rachel Jones in January of 1761 and the couple had at least nine children. Elijah, Micakah, Mary, Levie, Edward, Rachel, Elizabeth, Sarah and Joahaner. During the year of 1785, Micajah received a land grant of 100 acres along Elk Creek in present day Ashe County. Pennington Gap, Virginia was named after Micajah’s son, Edward settled in the area during the year of 1802. Elijah married Susannah on 9/9/1800 and continued to live in the Ashe County area. The couple had a son, Elijah Pennington who married Mary Osborne and they had the following children; Isaac, Elijah, Lue, Peggy, Sarah and Mary.

Isaac Pennington (great grandson of Micajah Pennington) with wife Martita Osborne Pennington

Henry Dulhuer was located in North Carolina during the late 18th century. A total of two land deeds can be found for him in present day Ashe County. 100 acres along Buffalo Creek was purchased with sixty silver dollars from Peter Fouts in 1801. 300 acres which was originally granted to Lawrence Younce, later granted to Peter Fouts and eventually listed the owner as Henry Dulhuer. Henry and his wife had at least two daughters, but the fate of this couple would end in tragedy. According to family historians, Henry prepared for a trip to New York during the years of 1805 and 1810. He never returned home. The facts are not known concerning his disappearance, but it was widely known through the community that Henry was traveling to New York for a patent for his new invention. During this same time period, the wife of Henry died from burns received from fighting a house fire. The two daughters, Katy and Anna were orphans at a young age. Katy married David Burkett in 1817 and Anna married Daniel Bowman. Anna and Daniel migrated west to Indiana and was settled in the area by 1850. Katy and David had two sons, Daniel and David Jr. David Burkett died in 1820 leaving young Katy a widow. She never remarried and raised her two sons in Ashe County. Katy died after 1860. She is shown on the 1860 census living with her son, David Burkett Jr.

I gazed upon the sunrise as it stretched it’s rays over the mountain I took a breath from the new day Remembering the long dusty miles and the cold rain The wagon wheels may rest today This valley with it’s fresh water and fertile soil is all I need At long last, I am home

Piedmont Trails

William Miller arrived in New Jersey from England circa 1752 leaving his fiancée, Mary Aldridge behind. William bound himself out in order to earn money for Mary’s passage. She arrived circa 1764 and the couple were married. They migrated along the Great Wagon Road to Carolina and first settled in the Jersey Settlement of Rowan County. By 1783, the couple had moved to the western section of the colony and was living in present day Meat Camp community of Ashe County. The couple’s son, William Miller Jr. was elected to the NC House of Representatives in 1824. He died one year later.

Luke White served in the militia from Wilmington District, NC according to many family members. However; the documents that would prove this statement have not been discovered as of yet. The New Hanover courthouse was burned in 1798, 1819 and 1840 and this would have been the prime target to find these resources. It is believed that Luke was born in Virginia circa 1750 and died during the year of 1820 in Ashe County. Luke married Elizabeth Yokley prior to 1773. Luke and Elizabeth lived along Roans Creek where Elizabeth died prior to 1810. The children of this couple are Elilzabeth, Susan, Nancy, Sallie, Mary, Catherine, James, David, John, Luke Jr and William.

Back Roads of Ashe County, NC

Rev. William Ashley was one of the earliest Methodist preachers in present day Ashe County. William was born in Surry County, NC and married Elizabeth Calhoun in 1778. The couple moved to the western section of the state by 1815 and were living in the Little Horse Creek area. William became the minister of Methodist Episcopal Church in Warrensville. At the time, the family had moved to Staggs Creek. A private cemetery overlooking the North Fork of the New River has remained on the family property for over 150 years. William died January 31, 1852 and the couple had eight children. Polly, Cynthia, Cary, Frances, Nancy Malinda, Spencer, Zilphia and James Porter Ashley.

The community of Scottsville was named after Frank Scott who operated a store in the area. Warrensville was first settled in 1826 and was then known as Buffalo Creek. It was renamed in honor of a man who operated the first grist and sawmill in the community. Crumpler was named after Major Crumpler, a confederate officer. It’s interesting to know that the aristocracy of eastern Carolina during the mid 18th century referred to the early frontiersmen of the western lands as “offscourings of the earth” and “fugitives of justice.” As research has proven, many families settled this vast wilderness when it was illegal to do so. Opinions will vary to the reasoning behind their migration, but a well known fact supports the determination shown by these early families. The farming of rocky soil was strenuous and the continued threats by Indians were common. By 1810, the wilderness had transformed to a beautiful landscape portrait. The inhabitants lived in peace and remote from the ever changing environment below the mountains. To learn more about the history of Ashe County, visit the history of 1914.

This is the end of segment 1 of this series. Segment 2 will be arriving soon. We Thank You so much for your support of Piedmont Trails and wish you great success on your research. Enjoy your journey !!

The Great Wagon Road Enters Into South Carolina

The previous article left the Great Wagon Road on the banks of the Yadkin River in North Carolina. The road ended at the Shallow Ford Crossing in the year of 1748 before additions were added later. Carolina was a vast wilderness west of the Yadkin River and early settlements were discouraged prior to circa 1730. Edward Hughes operated a tavern in this location for over 50 years. The tavern was in place by 1753. The actual crossing is located near Cornwallis Drive and was comprised of natural stone that was flat across the river and shallow. Although during frequent rains and storms, the area was prone to flooding and would prevent wagons from crossing for days at a time. Early settlers living in this area in 1748 were Morgan Bryan, Squire Boone, James Carter, George Forbush, Samuel Davis and William Linville. It is believed that these settlers all traveled together down the Great Wagon Road from Virginia with the exception of Edward Hughes. According to documents, Edward settled in the area prior to 1748 and traveled from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. While traveling, Edward purchased a tract of land in the valley of Virginia during December of 1746 but left the area during the fall of 1747.

From the Shallow Ford crossing, the Great Wagon road ended in 1748 and a small pack horse trail continued from this point to Salisbury, NC. Present day route would be portions of Highway 158, Highway 601 and NC Highway 801. Once on Old Mocksville Road, the original route follows for 8 1/2 miles to Salisbury. This portion of the road was ordered for improvements in 1763 and was completed as a wagon road approx. 1764. Also, from the Shallow Ford crossing, another road was ordered in 1770 that would travel to Mulberry Fields, presently known as Wilkesboro. This road would follow present day Highway 421. It was known to the early settlers as Boone Road, named after Daniel Boone. The road connected to the Wilderness Road and eventually reached Kentucky.

Rowan County, NC

The road ended at Salisbury for a time until 1755 when the road was extended to the Mecklenburg County and the settlement of Charlotte, NC. The present day route follows US Highway 29. Charlotte was originally known as Charlotteburg and was first settled circa 1750. By 1768, the settlement was chartered as a town, largely by Scotch-Irish traders. In most cases, the presence of an inn indicated the location of the county seat. Salisbury and Charlotte both contained inns which allowed the county justices a residence on court days.

The actual route for the Great Wagon Road south of Charlotte has not been fully researched as it has north from Charlotte. Correspondence from historical societies, South Carolina State Archives and libraries support the following route. Traveling south along US Highway 29 to Lancaster County, South Carolina. This boundary was formerly known as the Catawba Indian Nation. This tribe survived the early settlers of the 18th century and survived the American Revolutionary War while fighting with the patriots against Cornwallis. They are a recognized tribe today and many are still living on portions of the original lands.

The road was known to the early settlers as Camden Road or Wagon Road. An historical road marker can be located at Twelvemile Creek which is now a bridge on Harrisburg Road and US Highway 521. Traveling along for 13 miles, you will cross three creeks which are now culverts. The names of these are Fording Causer Branch, Cane Creek and Camp Creek. The road then crosses Gills Creek and enters into present day Lancaster. Lancaster originated as a small settlement as early as 1759. The Waxhaw Presbyterian Church was located in the area during this time period. Lancaster was formed in 1795. Following US Highway 521 for approx. 20 miles, Bear Creek will be visible as well as Kershaw, an early settlement established in 1732. Us Highway 521 continues for approx. 25 miles until the settlement of Camden is reached. Both Camden and Kershaw are treasure troves for early history of South Carolina. Like Kershaw, Camden was established during the year of 1732.

Congaree River Columbia, South Carolina

Camden is located along the Wateree River and was a powerful waterway for the early pioneers. The town was originally named Fredericksburg and Kershaw was known as Pine Tree Hill. From this point, the road takes US Highway 1 and Taylor Street for 30 miles until the Congaree River is reached and the city of Columbia. Continuing on US Highway 1 and Augusta Road, the next 12 miles covers the intersection of present day Interstate 26 and US Highway 1. Lexington is reached on the road after an additional 12 miles. Lexington was formally known as Saxe-Gotha and established in 1735.

Saxe-Gotha Town Plat

Leaving Lexington, the road follows South Carolina Highway 23 for 21 miles to the Edgefield County line. Francis Higgins operated a ferry on the Saluda River and was well-known to many travelers along the road. At this point, the road follows South Carolina Highway 121 for approximate 30 miles until the Savannah River. The travelers would navigate the river to reach Augusta, Georgia.

The next segment of this series will concentrate on another route entering into South Carolina and arriving in Augusta, Georgia. I hope you are enjoying this journey with Piedmont Trails and hoping you are finding new hints and clues for your ancestor’s trails.

The Great Wagon Road In North Carolina

A Detailed Description For Years of 1745-1770

The last segment featured the trail reaching the Carolina wilderness. As the early settlers gazed upon the horizon, they carried within them the dreams of their hearts and the hope of the future. The pioneers have been traveling for weeks now, enduring the hardships of the road and it’s many hazards. The families along with the animals are becoming more and more tired of the daily travel. The rough terrain is harsh along with the elements of nature forcing her hand upon the pioneers. Many of these pioneers changed their destination routes and settled in areas near the road. 

The tall swaying pines were greeting the pioneers as they crossed the Virginia/Carolina state line onto present day Amostown Road located in Stokes County. Traveling 5 miles, they reached present day, Sandy Ridge after crossing Buffalo Creek and Blackies Branch. The trail has continued as an Indian hunting path but it is also following the old buffalo herd trails. The buffalo made several paths that lead to water such as Buffalo Creek. The actual ford of Blackies Branch is located on Dillard Road. The road now joins with NC 704 for 4 miles until it joins NC 772. The next major water crossing would be located at the Dan River. Many different fords have been located along the river, many believe that the most popular ford was located along Glidewell Road near present day Dodgetown Road. Upon reaching the Dodgetown area, a junction in the trail appears. This junction was named Limestone Road during 1770. The pioneers who traveled the road prior to 1770 took the trail extending onto Highway 89 south to Walnut Cove where portions lie across Highway 65 and 66 through Stokes County.

The Great Wagon Road branches into many different trails along the Carolina countryside. As you follow NC 772, 3 miles from Dodgetown area, the settlers would be arriving in present day Dillard. Continuing along NC 772 for 4 miles, the trail turns on Hickory Fork Road until Willard Road. I strongly recommend a 4 wheel drive in this area along Willard Road due to the very rural area and frequent flooding from the Dan River. Once the river is crossed here, the present day road transforms into a dirt path until it reaches Saura Farm Road.  Tuttle Road is located after traveling 2 miles. This road will join US 311 and Oldtown Road near Walnut Cove. Continuing onward for 4 miles, the trail reaches present day Brook Cove Road and then joins Highway 8 until it reaches the original Townfork Settlement. A bridge is now located near the original ford at Town Creek. 

A few surnames who settled this area prior to 1760 are Armstrong,  Beard, Bitting, Braley, Donnel, Gillespie, Grogan, Kerr, McClure, McAdoo, Nicks, Nix and Walker. Majority of these pioneers lived near Buffalo Creek in present day Stokes County, NC.

Documentation proves that settlers were traveling this area as early as 1718

Highway 8 leads the present travelers to Germanton which was established in 1790. The crossing of Buffalo Creek would be waiting on the early settlers which today can be crossed by a bridge. The original trail now travels 1 mile to the junction of Highway 65 in Rural Hall. From here you travel 2 1/2 miles along Germanton Road/Highway 8 until Stanleyville Drive. 5 miles to University Drive in Winston-Salem and 1/2 miles to West Haynes Mill Road. Another 1/2 mile crossing Grassy Creek until the trail reaches Bethania Station Road. At this point, the Moravians built a new road that reached their settlements. This segment will continue with the original trail. 

From Bethania Station Road the trail travels along Beck’s Church Road to Bethabara. In 1763, a new road was ordered in this area that leads to present day Salisbury and the Yadkin River. This route would have been closely followed by Morgan Bryan and his traveling party from Virginia. The actual route can be located near Speas Road and Midkiff Road. The area has drastically changed over the years due to agriculture and economic progress. After 2 miles the trail joins Reynolda Road in Winston-Salem. Traveling for 5 miles along Stratford Road and Reynolda Road, the trail then reached Silas Creek Parkway and Ebert Road. Traveling 4 miles to NC 150 and Old Salisbury Highway, this portion of the road was originally a pack horse Indian trail that traveled east to Cross Creek, otherwise known as Fayetteville, NC.

Documentations prove that George Washington traveled sections of the Great Wagon Road while on his Southern Tour during 1791.

From this point, the road travels 27 miles along NC 150 and US 29 to reach the Yadkin River. Today a bridge marks the crossing along the original route. The above data documents the original route of the road entering into North Carolina. Depending upon the timeline of the early pioneers depends on what actual route they traveled. North Carolina was a land of wilderness with little to very few settlers prior to 1745 in this region. Portions of the land were open meadows which were perfect grazing lands for buffalo. The last document verifying the sightings of buffalo in the region can be found in the Moravian diaries and date to the year of 1758. Huge trees also dominated the landscape as well as wildflowers and natural springs. The land that our ancestors gazed upon so many years ago has greatly changed all through the years. But due to research, it is possible to travel along the same route our ancestors did during the 18th century.

To have a better understanding of the sounds our ancestors heard while on the Great Wagon Road, click here. Also, if you would like to have a better understanding on how the wagons crossed rivers and creeks, click here. Depending upon the timeline of your ancestor, greatly varies  which route was taken. Prior to 1765, only two routes were used from Big Lick(Roanoke), Virginia to Carolina. After 1770, several new routes were established and used up to the American Revolutionary War. By 1790, road improvements were made along the many routes leading into North Carolina and additional routes were made traveling south and west from the region. 

The Great Wagon Road Is A Historic Trail

The early settlers used the road to travel back and forth from North Carolina to Pennsylvania. The road allowed the sale of cattle and crops for many of the pioneers. Supplies were transported into North Carolina via the road to stock shelves in merchant stores located in Moravian settlements, Salisbury and other early towns established prior to 1770. The next segment on the road will give a detailed route entering into South Carolina and Georgia.  Also, a new page will be arriving to Piedmont Trails in  January 2019. This page will give research techniques and information about all 18th and early 19th century migration trails throughout the entire United States.

Piedmont Trails appreciates your support so much. I hope everyone is able to discover many treasures along the trail of your ancestors. Determining the actual route of your ancestors can be a difficult project, but it is not impossible by any means. Using the right research techniques and creating a timeline from your notes will greatly help you determine the right route. All of our ancestors left an amazing trail to follow. Enjoy your journey !!

A Detailed Route of The Great Wagon Road

Present Day Roanoke, Virginia to North Carolina State Boundary Line

Welcome to segment 3 of The Great Wagon series. The photo above shows the Roanoke River lined with the season of autumn as it winds and turns through the landscape. The last article ended at present day Roanoke, Virginia, otherwise known to the traveling pioneers as “Big Lick”. Beginning at Franklin Road, a historic road sign informs present day travelers of the historic importance pertaining to the Great Wagon Road. The settlers would have traveled this section and reached the banks of the Roanoke River. The crossing was known as Tosh’s Ford and after crossing the waterway, the travelers would have seen Evans Mill, which was located approximately 1/4 mile south near Crystal Spring. Franklin Road will allow present day U.S. Highway 220 to join the route and here the pioneers would begin leaving the great valley of Big Lick. 

Historic Road Sign Located At Tosh’s Ford, Virginia

The date referencing the group of Moravians using this crossing is incorrect on the historical road marker. The 15 Moravian men left Pennsylvania on the morning of November 2, 1753. Daniel Evans arrived in the area prior to 1750. He settled at the foot of a mountain, now known as Mill Mountain. He captured the waters of Crystal Spring and operated a grist mill along The Great Wagon Road for years. Mark Evans, Daniel’s father, arrived in the area with his three sons, Daniel, Nathaniel and Peter sometime during the year of 1741. Mark died before the large land tract was properly deeded and his son, Daniel became the owner of the property. This acreage extended from the modern Roanoke Regional Airport to the Franklin County line. The spring was known by several names such as “Big Spring”, “Fountain” and “McClanahan’s Spring”. By 1881, the name changed once more to Crystal Spring. The grist mill was built in 1750 and was located  approximately 400 feet from the spring. Evan’s Mill was declared as the “most important mill on the frontier” according to “Virginia Frontier: The Beginning of the Southwest, The Roanoke of Colonial Days(1740-1783)” by FB Kegley. Due to the importance and popularity of the mill, the mountain where the Evan’s family resided became known as Mill Mountain. 

The settlers traveled 5 miles from the location of Evan’s Mill and reached a natural gateway named Maggoty Gap. This passage made it possible for the heavy wagons and livestock to pass through the Blue Ridge Mountains. Morgan Bryan(1671-1763) cut the path for the first wagon in 1746. He later reported to others that he had to disassemble his wagon and carry it piece by piece up the last slope. Morgan stated that this portion of his trip took 3 months to travel 80 miles from the valley of “Big Lick” to his destination of “Shallow Ford” which is present day Yadkin River near Winston-Salem, North Carolina. As you can see, it depended greatly on the timeline in which these early settlers traveled on determining the length of time for the trip.

Cahas Mountain, Franklin County, Virginia

Maggoty Gap Location

Carried it piecemeal up the last slope

Quoted by Morgan Bryan(1671-1763)

The route in present day next reaches U.S. Highway 220 freeway intersection and the original route crosses Maggoty Creek and follows VA 613 or Naff Road. A brick structure stands along Naff Road and was an active inn during the mid to late 18th century. The road passed directly in front of this inn. A map from 1865 gives reference to the location serving the travelers along the road. The actual structure dates to the mid 18th century. Traveling 4 1/2 miles to the end of Naff Road, the route once again joins present day U.S. 220 and Goode Highway. The pioneers traveling late 18th century would have seen the mill of Jacob Boon(1749-1814). The area where the mill was located later developed into a community named Boones Mill. Many genealogists and historians become confused with this family and the famous legend of Daniel Boone and his lineage. However; the families were not related at all. Jacob is shown on early documents as Bohn and was later changed to Boon. According to documents, the mill was constructed just prior to the year of 1786.

Passing over Little Creek along VA 739 and traveling 10 miles, the settlers would have crossed Blackwater River. Today this crossing is a one lane bridge along VA 643. Early documents proclaim this area was terribly known for flooding. Several families would be camped near here to wait out the floods before crossing. The photo below shows the color tint of the waters, thus the reason for it’s name.

Blackwater River Bridge in Virginia

Now the route travels 5 miles following VA 802 otherwise known as “Old Carolina Road”. Traveling 9 miles to present day Ferrum which was established in 1889. The construction of the railroad decided to use the original wagon road in 1892. The rail lines were constructed on top of the road in this area. The pioneers would have traveled 6 miles from this location to reach the boundary of Henry County, Virginia. After crossing Town Fork Creek, a steep incline would have been waiting on the wagons. This incline was filled with trees, debris, rocks and many more dangers. It is estimated that the original climb would have been approximately 4 miles with 1 mile of travel along the ridge line. A steep descent along VA 606 and the crossing of Little Reed Creek would have been made along the bottom. Here the route joins back into U.S. Highway 220 and the area of Philpott Dam. The dam has greatly altered the landscape and the appearance of the area would have appeared completely different to the 18th century travelers. Moravian diary entries reveal that many of the travelers regarded this area as the most beautiful along the route.

Beautiful lowlands with many grapes

Quoted by documents located at the Southern Moravian Archives

The Smith River is the next obstacle for the pioneers. Following present day U.S. Highway 220 through Fieldale by vehicle to the river crossing. Many historians speculate that the actual crossing was near the waters of Blackberry Creek. The 1751 Fry-Jefferson Map shows this possible location. From U.S. Highway 220 to VA 609, the route traveled through an early settlement named Rangely. This community was active as early as 1753 and was located near present day Dillons Fork Road. It was popular with the early travelers because of a man named John Hickey(1728-1784). John operated a store and was known as the last stop along the trail to replenish supplies. John Cornelius Hickey was born in Middlesex, Virginia and settled near the Smith River. It is recorded that John also operated an inn and maintained a farm with various crops. The court of June, 1749 ordered the following: 
The road order reads: “It is ordered that a road be laid off and cleared the best and most convenient way from Staunton River to the Mayo Settlement at the Wart (Bull)mountain, and it is ordered that Joseph Mayes and all the male laboring tithables convenient to said road forthwith mark of and lay the most convenient way from Staunton River to Allen’s Creek, and keep the same in repair according to law. 

The road became known as Hickey’s Road, an extension for the Great Wagon Road. From this point, the road traveled 11 miles to reach present day Horse Pasture, Virginia along U.S. 58. The original Moravians camped in this area on November 11, 1753 as noted in the journal held at the Southern Moravian Archives. From this point, the original route crosses over between Wagon Trail Road and George Taylor Road traveling 4 miles to reach the North Carolina state line boundary.

1751 Fry-Jefferson Map

The Great Wagon Road has now reached the boundaries of the Carolina Frontier. The new settlers are anxious upon reaching their new homes. Anticipation grows with each mile as they gaze upon Carolina for the first time. The pioneers were very aware of the miles they had traveled, but how did they measure the actual mileage? The colonial equation was averaged by tying a piece of linen to one of the wooden spokes on the wagon wheel. The circumference of the wheel multiplied by the revolutions the wheel turned equaled to the amount of mileage traveled for the day. For the most part, the settlers traveled approximately 15 miles a day. This 15 miles did not take into consideration, downed trees, sickness, poor weather or failed equipment.  After researching the trail, I believe that 72 miles separated Roanoke, Virginia to the North Carolina state line. 

The next segment will follow the road through the Carolina wilderness, giving details along the way. The road will eventually end in Augusta, Georgia by the end of this series. Piedmont Trails is currently supporting a group of volunteers who are working together in order for the Great Wagon Road to be named as a national historic trail. If you are interested in volunteering with this project, click here or click on the contact page and submit your request. 

Excitement fills the air as new pages are added to this website. United States Research Links is new which covers all 50 states. This page gives you free links for researching history and genealogy. Arriving soon, Migration Trails Throughout The United States. This page will reference early trails and roads that allowed our ancestors to travel. The arrival of this page will be in late December.

I greatly appreciate your support and hope you enjoy your visits with Piedmont Trails. Our ancestors left many trails to follow and I hope you are enjoying your journey to the past. Wishing you all great discoveries filled with many treasures along the way. 

  1. Virginia Frontier-The Beginning of the Southwest, The Roanoke Of Colonial Days(1740-1783) by FB Kegley
  2. Historical Society of Western Virginia
  3. Southern Moravian Archives